The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction. This is also aided by the valves (artioventricular and semi lunar valves). The circulatory system consists of the heart as well. The heart is a complex
It has three functions one of them is that it transports nutrients, oxygen and hormones to cells throughout the body and removes wastes such as carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste. It also regulates the body’s temperature, fluid pH and water contents of cells. And also it protects it by white blood cells, antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the body against foreign microbes and toxins. 2. List the structures and functions of the lymphatic system.
Although plasma is formed mostly of water, plasma also contains solutes, which are like plasma proteins (Ballard, 32). "All nutrients and waste products dissolve in the plasma and are transported all around the body," replies Ballard (32). Erythrocytes, which are well known as red blood cells, are bowl-shaped with concave, or curved inward, top and bottom surfaces (Ballard, 32). According to Ballard, "Their narrow shape allows them to squeeze through narrow capillaries without being damaged. They are simple fluid-filled sacs, each containing about 280 million molecules of hemoglobin, the protein that gives blood its red color and that carries oxygen" (32).
Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries. When the blood has been worn-out of oxygen, it makes its way back to the heart and lungs through the veins. The circulatory system might also comprise the circulation of lymph, which is basically recycled blood plasma once it has been filtered
Materials are exchanged between the blood and cells through the thin walls of the capillaries. The inner layer of blood vessels is lined with endothelial cells that create a smooth passage for the transit of blood. This inner layer is surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle that enable the blood vessel to expand or contract. Arteries are thicker the veins to hold the pressure of the blood being pumped from the heart. Blood in the veins is low pressure.
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
Assignment 1 – Unit 11 Physiology of Human Body Systems Task 1 The lymphatic system is the system which is involved in homeostasis in our body by draining the interstitial fluid. It is also in charge of defending our bodies from diseases. This is because the lymphatic system provides the place for formation and maturation of the lymphocytes which the white blood cells involved in immunity which are activate when they are in contact with antigens. Also the lymphatic system stops fluid form building up in the tissues in our body and its acts as a filter for the blood and removes the pathogens and antigens from the blood. Role of the parts: Lymph nodes – Lymph nodes are enclosed, located around the lymph vessels.
Describe how the body systems affect one another. How body systems affect each other is for example when the circulatory system works with the respiratory system. They work together because when you breathe in you take in oxygen and the respiratory system does its job and then the circulatory system takes the oxygen and sends it to your other parts. 3. Explain how cells are important to tissues.
Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates. When a patient's blood is continuously removed and returned through plastic tubing to allow
The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. The human heart is con shaped and has the size of a closed fist. In accordance to that, a bigger person has a bigger fist and therefore a bigger heart. Moreover, it is the only involuntary striated muscle that is consisting of four chambers: two upper chambers “atria” and two lower one “ventricles”, where the right side of the heart is separated from the left side by an inter-ventricular septum, and they are connected by pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. Although the human heart is the first organ that starts development, it takes several stages to be formed (figure1): • First stage: Formation of the primitive heart tube: That is done after the fusion of endocardial
Lysosomes digest the toxins so they can be safely eliminated by the cell. Peroxisomes contain oxidases and catalases that detoxify substances like alcohol and neutralize free radicals. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also contains enzymes that detoxify certain drugs (such as alcohol). 3. Mrs. Fender’s jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin in her blood and tissues.
Holly Weiss SC-131 Unit 7 Acidosis and Alkalosis Assignment The normal pH value for the body fluids is between pH 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH value of body fluids is below 7.35, the condition is called acidosis, and when the pH is above 7.45, it is called alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially the blood, to become too acidic. Some causes include obstructive sleep apnea, diseases of the chest, airways and the nerves.