(Manafi Anari, 2003, p.14) In the early stage of translation study, there had been no specific definition and classification for “untranslatability”. It is British scholar Catford who first elaborates on this issue. In his dichotomy model of untranslatability which is the most important and logical theory about the topic, Catford identifies two kinds of untranslatability, namely, linguistic untranslatability (LU) and CU. He describes that LU arises when “failure to find a TL equivalent is due entirely to differences between the source language and target language” (1965, p.98). Since it “has nothing to do with cultural differences in the wider sense; it is purely linguistic” (Ibid, p.97), LU is not discussed in this paper.
It spread -orderly- to North America in the United States and the Caribbean, Australia, South Africa, South Asia, west Africa and then the east side of it . It 's the primary language of south east India and Pacific island nations as well as it is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states. Furthermore, it is considered an official language of lots of sub-Saharan African countries. English language has lots of particularities, such as it is the third most widespread native language in the world after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish, it is used by different people for more purposes than any other language in our planet, and it is the most widely taught foreign language in the whole world. The English language has had a remarkable history.
So, how is it possible that a language spoken by a few millions, suddenly becomes the most important language in the world? First of all, colonisation has been the most critical way to spread the language. Let 's take the United States for instance, which only existed of some millions native people before European settlers came to America, including a massive settlement from Britain. Today USA is now the country which has more English native speakers than any other country, simply because of the massive English settlement. In addition to the colonies in America, English colonies were established in Australia, New Zeeland, India and Africa.
English as a lingua franca is one of the many contributors to a Global English which can be defined as ‘a single variety of English…capable of functioning as an international’ language (Mooney, A & Evans, B. 2015:217). Although it may seem that we are moving towards a global English, many Linguists argue that we will never get there, for example, Moony and Evans go on to state that ‘there is no such thing as a singular global English’, Jennifer Jenkins agrees with this view and dismisses even the ability to group people into different varieties of English, saying that each person’s English is completely different, even if they have the same first language, second language learners are exposed to a completely unique set off English-interactions throughout their life. Jenkins gives an example of two Koreans, she argues that even if the two had learnt English in the same class, after a life’s worth of experiences, they would sound very different (Jenkins, J.
The English language in the world today There are more than 7 billion people on earth and there are almost 7000 living languages in the world today. English has become a lingua franca, a common language to enable communication across borders and continents. Looking back at the history of English, it can be divided into three main periods: First period is called Old English starting from 450 AD, second period is called Middle English starting from 1100 AD and Modern English starting after 1500 AD. Old English sounds nothing like modern English and is also known as Anglo-Saxon as it was spoken by the Anglo-Saxons. In the 15th century, the English language has evolved to a state that is closer to modern English and can be mostly understood today.
How Has The English Language Influenced India? For various reasons English has got the status of global language. Today about 300 million people speak English as their first language and another 350 million use it as a second language. It is the official or semi-official language in more than 60 countries. The main reason why English is so important is mainly due to the political and economic power the British used to have in the world.
Introduction The English language has shifted from a language that was once spoken intra-nationally between native speakers in English national countries to becoming an international medium of communication (Kirkpatrick 2007). It is not only spoken in native-native speaker or native-non-native speaker interactions, but also spoken among non-native speakers as a lingua franca (Crystal, 2007). It is estimated that approximately 2 billion people have English knowledge (Graddol, 2007) in which native speakers are now a minority and non-native speakers are the majority (Kirkpatrick, 2007). It is routinely believed that in 80% of interactions in English involving a second language user the interlocutor is also a speaker of English as a second language user. This has been a source of concern for some linguists who believe that the proliferating numbers of non-native speakers and the emergence of localised varieties of English has put native speakers at a disadvantage.
English is the mother tongue of 300 million people in the world. The countries where English is the native or first language are the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Some other countries like India, Pakistan, Africa, France, and the Soviet Union, etc. use English as a second or foreign language. Thus English is spoken by 700 million people in the world, which is next only to the Chinese language.
There are about 375 million English as a first language speakers and 750 million English as a second language speakers. English as official or special status in at least 70 countries. Just hearing the numbers gives you an inkling of just how important English is. The influence of Great Britain and the United States on international relations and political affairs for the past century has ensured acceptance and proliferation of English as the main language spoken in many countries. This essay will discuss the importance of English, why English is associated with technical and scientific communication, education and employment communications, moreover, the transformation of English to englishes.
1.0. The Role of English in India: English in India is a legacy from the British who colonized the country and their language permeated through some of the most important parts of society: the government, the media, the education system, the legal system and gradually the social sphere as well. India is a vast nation and in terms of the number of English speakers, it ranks third in the world after the United States of America and the United Kingdom. An estimated four percent of the population use English and even though this may seem like a small number that is about forty million people. This small segment of the population, controls domains that have professional and social prestige.