Many key developments during the Meiji Restoration played a significant role that allowed modernisation to occur in Japan. The period of the Meiji Restoration which began in 1868 under the control of Emperor Meiji was a time that propelled Japan in a modernised manner through the variety of changes that had developed. This additionally allowed Japan to adopt the notions of technology and the economic, political and social systems of other western countries such as the USA. Some of the key developments that happened included the downfall of the Bakufu which evoked political change, the changing role of the Samurai whereby provoking cultural and social innovations and the arrival of Commodore Perry that sparked a new existence of military reform.
Giving in to the ideas of Western industrialization, Japan quickly improved the standard of living for its citizens by expanding railways and firms, as seen in Document 7. In 1872, Japan boasted a modest 29 kilometers of railway tracks. This number shot up to 11,384 by 1912, a short 40 years later. Also as a way to help improve the life of Japanese citizens, Japan created a constitution as a part of its new constitutional monarchy, as seen in Document 4. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (1889)’s Chapter II is dedicated entirely to the rights and duties of subject which includes democratic ideas like fair trial, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and so on.
Through the construction of railroads and the advancement in architecture, American lives have been improved. First, the advancement of computers affected new technology in architecture and construction techniques that improved American lives. According to an architecture webpage, architects in the twentieth century discovered new technology, even better materials, and more buildings to create difficult and much taller buildings and statues. Next in the twentieth century, architects broke the past of the classic and Gothic
“THE GENERATORS OF CITY DIVERSITY” BY JANE JACOBS Phạm Nguyên Thảo Student ID: 14510673775 Urban planning plays an important role in city life, especially in a dynamic economy and environment of the city nowadays. Because of the rise in number of crime, pollution, traffic jam,…, many cities are looking for new solutions to deal with these ever growing problems. In the past, many urban planners tried to create perfect cities to completely replace the old cities, for example Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City, or Le Corbusier’s Radiant City. Nevertheless, recent planning has switched from strict building codes and grand schemes, to a more community-based approach that focuses on improving community life and the environment in which people live in. Besides, developing cities also face the threat of losing their diversity and identities.
The introduction of new breed of trains and vehicles which are electric powered such as light rail transit (LRT), mass rapid transit (MRT), monorail, commuter rail, sky train, high speed trains and bus rapid transit (BRT) has enhance city mobility and reduce city congestion. Many modern and big cities in the world such as Tokyo, London, Seoul, Paris, New York and Shanghai have adopted to train transit as its main urban transportation system apart from the existing bus and taxi system. The introduction of a more efficient and effective urban public transportation mode was seen as important initiative to ensure the sustainability of public transportation in urban areas for better mobility. Malaysian transportation system has evolved traditional transportation modes to a better and modern image system. This happened not only for urban transportation systems but also for rural systems.
Urbanization is seen as an effect of the current globalization phenomenon, with social aspects as well as the economic ones, representing the migration process of the population organizing in urban areas, areas considered to be true centers of progress that offer multiple options to residents (Mădălina & Anca, 2012). Early accounts of globalization assumed that place no longer mattered, that new technologies like the internet would make the office tower and central business districts obsolete. Saskia Sassen suggested that the opposite is true. She argued that a globalized economy remains a place-bound economy and that a world urban system or network has developed in which cities become key in the production of a range of services (Tyler & Elvin, 2006). But it is clear that the same underlying forces that have accelerated the pace of globalization (in particular, information technologies and transportation changes) are also contributing to fundamental changes in urban spatial structure at regional levels within many countries, both developed and developing (Elena, 2015).
The state has shown consistent commitment to business friendly and liberal economic policies. Much of Dubai's outstanding economic development and growth will be attributed to a progressive government, with a transparent vision and strategy for Dubai's economy. it's conjointly a government that contains a outstanding journal for death penalty massive, advanced and bold comes during a timely and economical manner. • OPEN AND FREE ECONOMIC SYSTEM Dubai's open policy, tokenism government management and personal sector regulation have competed AN semantic role in attracting immense foreign direct investment
Public transports are necessities to connect from different places. From cities to small towns, and everywhere in between, it provides transit for a daily mobility and links between people and their workplaces, education and entertainment. Thus, its availability and convenience determined the quality and develop optimize perception of public transport services in places. Moreover, it is the reason that improves the mobility efficient productivity and encourages economic activity thereby increasing national output and competitiveness. According to A.Aziz et .
The developing of railways in Java cannot be separated from the expantion of plantation and sugar industry in the context of colonial sytem. The target and policy from each railway were manifested in architecture of the railway station. More over the ideology of the chief engieneer, the engineer and the architect that influenced by the education background (Delft and KIVI) and trend in architectur show in the architectur of the railway station in Java. This point make the railways in Java has similarity to the Ducth railway station in Europe. The climate and the geography in java are the big challenge to the engineer.
1.1 INTRODUCTION Malaysia urban development shows a rapid growth in order to achieve high income nation in 2020. Sustainable development highlight by government require balance between environment, economy and social. Development in transportation through comprehensive and well performing transport system is an important enabler of sustained economic prosperity. In addition, transportation is one of the main issues stated in the Thrust 3 of Malaysian National Urban Policy that aims for an integrated and efficient urban transportation system. Establishment of Land Public Transport Commission (LPTC) in 2010 shows determination of government to improve public transport in Malaysia.