The focus of globalization on the economic benefits needs to be translated into health benefits. It also required that the resources generated by globalization process should be more favourable to developing countries and used to strengthen health systems, to ensure universal access to cost-effective interventions, and to improve other services essential to health, such as education, water and sanitation, environmental protection and effective nutrition and health safety programmes (Woodward et al, 2001). Countries should protect health-related spending from reducing in public expenditure, limiting the adverse effects of low or negative growth on the incomes of the poor, this will equally minimize the adverse effect on the health. It is important to monitor the effects of globalization and health, and to ensure that the results of such monitoring are fed effectively into decision-making processes at the national and international
Urban sprawl has grown to be a serious threat to environmental and social capital. The challenges of Urban Sprawl to the environment and society needs to be measured and mitigated skillfully with serious and purpose oriented input from planners, government and the community. In metropolitan areas, Urban Growth Management has become a known discipline that is used efficiently to regulate land use. Urban Growth Management attempts to addresses and mitigate the negative repercussions of urban sprawl and it also facilitates in designing future policies to keep urban development sustainable. (Fertner, Jorgensen, Nielsen & Nilsson, 2016).
There are mental health and substance use services in high demand which are difficult for homeless people to access. In addition, homeless people have very poor access to dental and vision care, as well as prescription drugs. This not only affects their health, but also their ability to gain employment (p. 255). The Street Health Report (2007), recommended proper health care such as mental health care, dental, vision care, prescription and as well as access to health care would improve quality of life of the homeless people. Income and housing are the solution to improving homeless peoples’ health.
Sustainable fashion is an approach to fashion that maximizes benefits to people, and minimizes the impact on the environment. The social and environmental aspects of sustainability are inherently linked. It’s very important to minimize and avoid the impact of the fashion industry on the environment. There are a lot of individuals working within fast fashion retailers, championing more sustainable practices, amongst smaller business pioneers. Fast fashion insiders have a tough and difficult challenge, because the commercial drivers of the businesses that work within are in conflict with the reducing environment impact.
(Freudenberg, Galea and Vlahov, 2006; ICSU, 2011). For this reason urban planners, designers and architects should study well the reasons behind these diseases, how the urban areas are affecting the people’s health? And therefore how to improve public health among urban areas? What design elements should be present in urban open spaces that increase health among residents? A case of Birzeit town has been taken to study whether Birzeit stands for human health within its urban fabric or not?
Lee K. et al (2009) extensively expounded five areas of weaknesses that are detrimental to attaining good GHG. These are policy coherence and coordination; transparency and accountability; participation and representation; resource mobilization and allocation; and leadership in global governance and social determinants of health, respectively. Key international institutions concerned with health, be they public, private or civil society, operate independent of one another and are accountable to donors not a higher level of health authority. They often have overlapping and duplicated mandates, with cost implications (Lee et al., 2009). Thus there is the need to improve coordination so as to avoid waste, inefficiency, and turf wars while building upon the current enthusiasm of new actors (Szlezák et al.,
The environment plays a beneficial role in the disposal of this waste which minimises or prevents harmful effects of the waste on human health. However the improper management of the environment as a waste sink compromises health through exposures to physical, chemical and biological risk factors. Depending on a city’s level of waste management, such waste may be dumped in an uncontrolled manner, segregated for recycling purposes, or simply burnt. Poor waste management poses a great challenge to the well-being of city residents, due to the potential of the waste to pollute water, food sources, land, air and vegetation. (Implications of the Dandora Municipal Dumping site in Nairobi, Kenya.
In the course of time it is equally significant to regard the people’s own beliefs , knowledge , customs experiences , practices, systems and structures that give meaning to the ECPH and mitigate the discontinuity between peoples perceptions and the health intervention package through regular dialogue.A relevant , vigorous and sustainable model is required for an improvement in the health system performance to prevent a decline in the status of health and development and also to break the vicious cycle of poverty and ill-health in Africa. There is a highly diverse health system that exists across Africa and its improvement would be based on the convergence of expertise, commitment, and resources throughout the system. A powerful model for improvement would embrace all the proportions that prove to be critical to health by labelling not only the risk factors of disease but also linking health and employment ,nourishment, food security , financing for health and cross-cutting issues. An approach would be better accustomed to issues
According to the survey of American Public Health Association (1941), people define health simply as “the absence of disease, that living without disease is to be healthy.” Such a definition relegates health to the medical professions charged with protecting good health and overcoming or managing poor health. This broader context of health was repeated in the 1946 World Health Organization Constitution, which defines health as “a state of complete physical, social, and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Unfortunately, a small definition fails to recognize the multifactor that influence health. Although these definitions of health have been criticized as utopians, they are important in their recognition that numerous factors influence the ability to be healthy, known as health determinants, these include biological, social and economic, environmental, lifestyle, services,
2. Literature Review Introduction Doyle (2013) describes the hospital working environment as complex and demanding with the ability to pose significant risks to staff safety. He goes on to say that the impact of poor occupational health and safety management does not only affect staff, but may also impact the patients they are treating. The Bureau of Labour Statistics (2011) published that the likelihood of injury or illness resulting in days away from work is higher in U.S based hospitals than in the construction and manufacturing industry, although these two industries have been traditionally thought to be relatively hazardous. With this in mind, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2013) contends that implementing safety