According to (Islam, Guo and Zhu 2014) in 2014 wind energy output was 280 GW worldwide. This figure is always rising with the EU demanding at least 12% of their electricity demand to be produced by wind energy by 2020 which equates to about 180 GW of power in the EU alone (Power 2016). This leads to both massive investment and growth in the industry but also scrutiny of both the positive and negative environmental impacts that wind energy has. These include the reduction of greenhouse emissions, impact on birds and bats, usage of large areas of land, social and communal implications and the immediate weather effects. The most important of these is the sole reason for the use of wind energy, to reduce greenhouse emissions.
Today, over 83 countries make use of wind power, with Denmark receiving 40% of their electricity from wind farms. Between the 1980s’ and 1990s’, wind energy was not economical in comparison with fossil fuels, but in the 21st century the oil prices grew increasingly along with public concern about global warning and fossil fuel depletion. Wind energy regained its attention from the public and
Once built, nuclear reactors have a lapse date. After reaching this date, it is necessary to remove them so that , in the main countries producing nuclear energy , to maintain a constant amount of operative reactors should be built about 80 new nuclear reactors in the next ten years. It is precisely because nuclear power plants have a limited lifespan that investment for the construction of a nuclear power plant is very high and you have to amortize in a very short time, hence the rising cost of electricity produced. In other words, the energy produced is low cost compared to the cost of fuel, but given the need for amortization of the construction of the nuclear power prices increase significantly. Nuclear plants are targets for terrorist organizations.
These methods are both economical and effective in helping reduce nuclear waste and it also adds in energy production thus creating an economical front for the country. In total countries such as the UK, Russia and Belgium are producing more than 1000 tons annually and they have been running the plants for the last 3 decades. However, once the waste has been reprocessed it cannot be recycled again. Thus now it has to be disposed and a good system of nuclear waste management is need for the USA. Countries such as Japan and Russia have been taking this reprocessed nuclear waste and used it as fresh fuel for other industrial
WIND FUNNEL (INVELOX) Abstract :- Introduction :- Since early recorded history, people have utilized wind energy. It propelled boats along the Nile river as early as 5000 BC and helped Persians pump water and grind grain between 500 to 900 BC. As cultures harnessed the power that wind offered, the use of wind mills were used extensively in food production. Eventually around 1000 AD with power technology spread north to European countries which adapted windmills to help drain lakes and marshes in the Rhine river Delta. Wind energy conversion systems have existed for more than 3000 years.
Are there any advantages of wind then? There are many advantages we can exploit from wind speeds. Wind energy has been used to our advantage since ancient times. We have been using the wind for sailing ships for the past 5500 years. The first practical windmills were used in Sistan, early in the Middle Ages.
Wind Energy Risa 12/9/2015 How much electricity does a wind turbine generate? An average wind turbine is able to generate 6 million kWh per year, which is about 1500 households. (Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), n.d.) Wind energy is a type of energy that’s able to cause a positive change towards the climate change situation that’s currently happening since it doesn 't create CO2. Climate change is when the climate pattern of Earth is changing due to the increasing amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect. Climate change is one of the greatest issue that we’re facing right now.
Hydropower plants in 2009 were providing almost 16.5% of the global electricity production which is equal to 3 329 TWh. This is around 85% of the total renewable electricity generation.These statistics are expected to increase as the governments and investors are now more into hydropower energy since its clean reliable and affordable. hydropower storage in reservoirs. When the production of electricity in a certain country becomes excessive the sluice gates of a dam can be shut down thus saving the water and storing the energy. the hydropower reservoirs are able to store the energy for years if not needed.
Wind turbines can be used to produce electric for a single apartment,in order to produce much more electric countries have wind farms which has lots of wind turbines that generate electric to several electric grids.This farms are great,but they can be built in appropriate areas such as hills or valleys and wind velocity must be at least 21 kilometers per hour because the wind must be fast enough and continuous (Millan,2013).Wind energy usage areas are homes,companies,street lighting,traffic lights,and watering systems.USA is in leader position to generate wind energy. They produce million kW electricity per year which equals to neccesity of 1 billion people for a year (Hepbasli, 2006).In the future we might use everywhere wind
Currently, NALCO focuses on an apex programmed to increase its production from 345 000 tonnes to 460 000 tonnes at the initial stage. INDUSTRY PORTERS FIVE FORCES MODEL Supply: The supply of aluminum is in excess and any deficit can be imported at low rates of duty. Currently, demand is stable, while the power supply is in excess. Request: Demand for aluminum is estimated to grow to 6-8% per year in view of the low consumption per capita in India. In addition, demand for the metal should pick up the scenario