Research suggests that there are contributing factors that may increase the possibility that certain people may be at a higher risk for compassion fatigue because of personal trauma, or professionals who have poor self-care practices, and people with lack of job satisfaction. In addition, it is important to know the difference between burnout and compassion fatigue because they share similar symptoms and often overlap. “Some research indicates that job burnout and compassion fatigue (i.e., secondary trauma) are separate contributors to psychological distress. Burnout is not limited to those who work with the traumatized and tends to occur over a prolonged period of time” (Harr & Moore, 2011,
ABSTRACT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The study aims to investigate factors influencing incivility behaviors in nursing causing high turnover rates by examining and reviewing the causes of incivility behaviors, also to discuss the available effective strategies that can help reduce incivility behavior in nursing. BACKGROUND Internationally, various studies and reports have raised concern regarding hostile behaviors in the nursing workplace. Incivility in nursing is defined as rude or disruptive behaviors which often result in physiological or psychological distress for people involved and if left unaddressed, may progress into a threatening situation (Broome 2011). Although aggression and violence from patients and visitors are cause for concerns, nurses reported hostility among colleagues, managers and other professionals have been the most concern and an impact to nurses’ society. Incivility defines as “a rude or unsociable speech or behavior (Merriam 2010).
One of the inevitable certainties of modern occupational life is stress. According to Greenberg (2012), stress and psychosocial stressors have the ability to adversely affect both the individual and organization. To illustrate workplace stress in practice, the case study of Pamela Perkins will be used. Undoubtedly, Pamela’s new role as a managing director of a chain of daycare centres has been quite taxing, owing to a number of factors ranging from work overload and home-to-work interface, which have affected her stress levels. Firstly, stress can be defined as physiological and emotional reactions that occur when faced with demands, whilst stressors refer to demands encountered during our daily life that are either physical or psychological
Unequal distributions of goods, wealth, opportunities, rewards, and punishments is a reoccurring trend among workplaces. Social insecurity does not only concern the individuals affected by social exclusion, but also the institutions which have the task to avoid, to overcome, and to abolish social exclusion. The factors that are constantly influencing and determining inequality and insecurity in social groups are
Temperature is another work environment that is negatively affecting employees job performance. For example, employees who worked all day in the heat can cause serious health issues, which leads to stress and health issues can lead to job loss and additional stress. It is important to speak to someone in the organization to solve such work conditions, in order to reduce stress and to protect health conditions. (Aamodt, 2015) Interpersonal stress occurs when an individual battle with stress due to a personal issue including family relations, finances and health. When an individual is going through an interpersonal stress, it effects the person’s behaviors.
Cognitive dissonance can impact attitudes and behavior in the workplace by causing a disruption of environmental cohesion. “This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc.” (McLeod, 2014). There will always be difficult situations in the workplace, but it is how you adapt in those situations that will determine the outcome to be positive or negative. A great example of cognitive dissonance can be found in the merger of Bethel Universitys’ two recruiting departments. The first department was what we all know as (COPS) College of Professional Studies, and the second department (COPS) College of Public Service.
Soiled clothing and footwear impacted on their self-esteem, and appearance, leading to anxiety about being judged by other people. Participants also found efforts being made to elucidate the problem had a poor outcome. Jones JE et al (2008) on reviewing the effects of smell and exudate from ulcers found that everyday life was affected. Emerging from the study (which used a hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) (HADS three aspects around the odour were recognised. The psychological reaction to odour, the anxiety felt as a result of the restriction on the participant’s social life, in case the smell might be noticed well as being concerns how nurses will manage the odour.
High stress levels also affected the morale and motivation of the employees. For instance, stress could lead to stress-induced gastrointestinal problems, irritable bowel syndrome, acidity, acid reflux, insomnia, depression, heart disease. Moreover, stress could push the victim toward high risk behaviour such as smoking, drinking, and substance abuse. Stress-related illness led to increase in absenteeism and attrition affecting the profitability of the organizations. (Kumar & Rooprai, 2009) Stress can be triggered by the pressures of everyday responsibilities at work and at home.
Moreover to the physical stress of working longer hours, there are also environmental reasons of pressure. These include extreme noise, a non-supportive administration, unfair rating procedures, failure to receive acknowledgement and unsafe working conditions. Also there are psychological causes of pressure in the workplace, such as encounters between employees, communication difficulties, lost sense of purpose, feelings of being overawed and fatigue. Remarks or behaviors which deny employees’ contributions, degrade them personally, or interfere with their ability to function as individuals may start the cycle of despair or violence (Gerson, A., 1993). Additional sources of job-related stress include uncertain job expectations and descriptions; short closing date and consistent “fire drills”; responsibility but no decision-making authority; routine, dull jobs with no room for creativity; and last but not least, the “isms” – racism, sexism, and ageism (Evans, T., 1990).
The aforementioned phenomena results in material social and economic costs to both employers and individuals. Serious risks include psychological harm and physical injuries, increased stress levels and an overall significant impact to the safety and well-being of the individual. Workplace bullying is the situation whereby an employee is treated with negative acts for a long period of time by his peers, supervisors or bosses. Usually the employee is unable to defend or retaliate due to the recognition of a formal or informal power imbalance. These advices will help employees in successfully dealing with or in managing bullying.
Rodriguez-Munoz, Baillien,De Witte, Moreno-Jimenez and Pastor (2009) found that exposure to workplace bullying at baseline predicted decreased dedication and job satisfaction. Workplace bullying not only impact inside the office, it also have an influence on employees outside of work. Tepper (2000) found that abusive supervision was negatively related to life satisfaction and positively related to work family conflict, and also that abusive supervision was positively related to family undermining. Those that are being bullied often develop self-esteem issues, have concentration issues, and even post-traumatic stress symptoms. If that individual is continuously to be intimidated, that person could involuntary leave the organization and endanger their career, taking more time off and looking for other employment.