For some, stress is the negative outcome of bad feelings but for others it is the cause of bad feelings. Stress in workplace is a result of high demands and low skills and it has physiological and psychological effects on the employee and employer sometimes. It is the demand and pressure that leads to stress especially when facing danger to prosperity. Experts from the developed countries like European Union, Japan and America and even from the developing nations focused on job stress and its impact on health of employees (Kawakamii & Haratani, 1999). We can divide job stressors into categories.
This type of organizational change can cause companies to downsize and/or lay-off employees to cut costs (Lussier & Achua, 2015) which causes leadership and employees tremendous stress. Additionally, stressful organizational situations have a large negative impact particularly in situations that involve punishment and lack of rewards (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Stress can cause decision makers to cut corners, become more prone to incidents, abuse, and deception (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). Several studies have connected stress to memory loss due to an increase in cortisol production. Moreover, employees can often respond to stress in a negative manner, and stress is known to lead to unethical decision making (Selart, & Johansen, 2011).
The factors leading to stress among individual are called as stressors. Some of the factors or stressors acting on employees are:- 1. Organizational factors. The growth in stress and complexity of the organization that causes stress among employees. Several factors such as discrimination in pay structure, rules and regulations are strictly enforced.
Chesley (2005) found that technology use can cause decrease in quality of life, increase work boundaries, and cause negative spill over and distress. The areas that will be examined for possible negative effects are stress, life satisfaction and job satisfaction. Job Stress With the work world rapidly changing, employees are becoming more concern with their work life balance (Shivananda & Ashok, 2012). A study done by Shivananda, and Ashok (2012) found that there was a negative relationship between work life balance and stress level. This would mean that those who have a low level of work life balance would experience high levels of stress and vice versa.
There are a number of signs to recognise stress. A person could have poor concentration, they could develop tendencies on alcohol, drugs and people. For workers, the troubled economy may feel like an emotional rollercoaster. Budget cuts have become common words in the workplace, and the result has increased fear, uncertainty, and higher levels of stress. It’s important to learn new and better ways of coping with the pressure.
It’s a known fact that, everyone who has ever held a job has, at some point, felt the pressure of work-related stress. This makes occupational stress, as an important concept in the study of employee’s response towards their working environments. In fact, occupational stress has been defined as a "global epidemic" by the United Nations' International Labour Organization. The epidemic of workplace stress can be seen as a result of changing workplace and economic conditions over the past 30 years. Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper (2002) explains the changes that have taken place specifically relating to industrialized countries where workplaces was transformed by globalization, reengineering and economic competitiveness.
Therefore, in order to improve functioning and productivity of employees as well as to maintain good relationship with co-workers and employers companies have to undertake stress management programs. VARIOUS CAUSES OF STRESS IN AN ORGANISATION: The various factors that may causes stress among people of organization can be as follows: 1stHigh workload: If the work burden on people in an organization will be very high that is if burden will be far more than people’s capacity to do work, then people will feel frustrated and pressurized. And frustration at one or the other time will lead to stress. Examples for high workload can be: ▪ Unrealistic expectations and deadlines by company from employees. ▪ Under appointment of personnel’s for work already scheduled.
Stress in workplace obviously important to employees but management is also concerned about stress in workplace for several reasons. Stress in workplace reduces productivity, increase management pressure, and makes people ill in much way; evidence of which is still increasing. Workplace stress effects the performance of the brain, including functions of work performance; memory, concentration, and
Phase of “work stress”: This is a disturbance between the required and available resources. Work-related stress is the result of disruption between the external and internal environment of the employee, which is created when the available resources are insufficient to meet in an appropriate manner their personal goals and the demands from the work environment. This imbalance can happen to any employee without necessarily lead to burnout. ‘Exhaustion’ phase: This is the emotional response to previous imbalance, manifested in the form emotional exhaustion, stress, fatigue, boredom, lack of interest and apathy. The workplace is the employee stock source, while the attention is more focused on bureaucratic aspects than on clinical parameters.
(RUSSELL CROPANZANO, 1997)Stress is a mental feeling when job duties are beyond person 's capabilities. These mental feelings create the anxiety and tension which are symptoms of stress. stress as a reaction to a threat to (real or imaginary) your mental, physical and emotional health which can lead to series of reactions or physiological problems. (Mohsenzadeh, 2007). (Giga, Cooper, & Faragher, 2003)There are three different views for stress definition.