In addition to this, behavior management issues are of critical importance for the teachers of English language learners with special needs. Such teachers must know the needs related to children’s disability, possess cultural and linguistic knowledge. Unfortunately, in the majority of cases, lack of knowledge and little understanding about second language acquisition provide inappropriate educational services. Teachers do not fully understand the influence of native language on intellectual and cognitive development and the impact of cultural differences on students’ performance. Most commonly, ELLs with and without disabilities are often taught by teachers with insufficient experience and qualifications.
The challenges in teaching creative writing as a second language to middle school children Writing is one of the languages skills that is very important to be mastered in learning English as a foreign language. According to (Sokolik, 2003). Writing is a combination of process and production, process refers to the steps and ideas we go through to produce it and production is the final piece of the writing according to (Zhang & Chen, 1989). Writing is a comprehension skill that incorporates grammar, vocabulary, conception and other parts of the language. By developing the writing skill it will help young learners have a bright future in their further studies.
Teaching English at junior high school is directed to develop some communicative competencies with emphasizing on the spoken and written skills. The main target of the communicative competence is students are able to understand and produce oral and written functional text for students’ life in global world. In other words, teaching English at junior high school for all grades is oriented to the mastery on basic competence of four language skills that related to the environment namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These skills are expected to develop students’ potential in embracing the global era. They are also expected to get real experiences in learning.
Even advanced learners often finish a language course with the conviction that they are not sufficiently prepared for speaking beyond the classroom. This difficulty results, basically, from the character and inadequate frequency of speaking opportunities in the classroom in comparison to the abundance of natural varieties and genres of oral communication. In fact, selecting the most appropriate types of spoken discourse for
However, writing is the most popular means by which teachers evaluate students’ knowledge; it is not a skill to be learned easily. It is a complex task that needs a number of processes to be performed. Undoubtedly, expository writing is the genre that is needed in education and work. In the middle grades and beyond, writing becomes the backbone and expression of academic growth. As children move from the stage of learning to read to the stage of reading to learn, expository writing helps them to organize and express their thinking.
This strategy including repetition, summarising meaning, organizing new language, guessing meaning from context, and using imagery for memorizing. The term of “cognitive” simply means the use of mind (cognition) to learn. In learning English, field which mostly used cognitive strategy is reading comprehension. Rosenshine (1997), states that the act of creating question for students to answer does not lead to comprehension. Otherwise, the studentd will do self-questioning that will help them to understand what they read.
Despite many undeniable successes and evidences supporting Extensive reading, implementation of some extensive reading programmes have been less than a complete success. Greaney (1996) notes that in many countries, Extensive Reading programmes must bear with problems such as lack of reading materials and unprepared teachers. Teachers all over the world are bogged down with various tasks at schools. Never-ending paper works, new policies and implementations, courses and meetings, complains and disciplinary issues among students are barriers that hinder teachers’ involvements in such
Boonkit, K. (2010) agreed that vocabulary is singled out as important factors to be emphasized in building fluency for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Especially, vocabulary is central to English language learning because without sufficient vocabulary students cannot understand others or express their opinion. Consequently, knowing a lot of vocabulary will help everyone to understand and learn English better, because vocabulary is very important factor in learning
Vocabulary acquisition has become a vital element of second language learning, and developing a rich vocabulary illustrates a crucial role in communication (Schmitt, 2008). Furthermore, vocabulary learning is considered as one of the most ongoing and challenging tasks for a second language learner as it is a boundless and continuous process one needs to work on (Constantinescu, 2007). Discouragingly, most of the existing studies concentrate on listening, reading, writing, with very little attention to vocabulary acquisition. In the field of linguistics, it is believed that some if not most of FL/ L2 learning vocabulary is acquired incidentally (Grass, 1999). Research has been conducted to compare the efficiency of incidental vocabulary learning
According to McLaughlin (1992), learning a second language takes long, it is hard and complex, for both children and adults. Therefore, it is essential for teachers to know how learners acquire a second language, understand what the learner needs to learn (McLaughlin, 2013) as well as have an in-depth knowledge of the language; because a teacher’s understanding of the language affects the way he/she teaches. Surely, language teaching and learning is much more than just acquiring grammar, vocabulary and the four skills but social, cultural, economic, and political factors greatly influence it. However, in this paper I intend to discuss my personal understanding of a good theory of practice in English language teaching (ELT) with a focus on cultural competence, while acknowledging the importance of linguistic and communicative competencies. I refer to culture as people’s approach to life; their way of living and thinking and transmitting meaning to one another (Jiang, 2000).