In fact, Aurangzeb was one of the last Mughal emperors and after his rule, India was taken over by Great Britain who took advantage of the turmoil and divisions that existed because of the lack of unity and religious tolerance that had existed under the rule of Akbar. King Akbar shows us that when religious tolerance is practiced, empires flourish and its people remain united, and when it ceases to exist, conflict increases, causing societies to fall into decline and empires to
All of them lacked access to important trade routes to Asia, America etc. but the others except England were always involved in kind of a war-like situation which would take a toll on the population and wealth of those kingdoms. England being an island had an upper hand over the others as it kept away from foreign invasions. Initially, it was ruled by the Romans. When the Romans left due to Barbarian attacks, England was left in turmoil of political and military instability.
RESPONSE OF INDIAN JUDICIARY TO THE CONCEPT OF SECULARISM The whole essence of the Indian freedom movement had been to establish a pluralistic Indian society which would with open arms accommodate and enhance India’s multi-cultural, multi linguistic and multi religious identity. Even during the period when political antagonism between the Congress and Muslim League where gaining concrete grounds and the storm clouds of partition of the Indian state were hovering heavy over the Indian motherland, what the framers of the constitution could only ensure as solace to the weeping mother of the parting sons was that the new India would essentially be a secular state but with a notion of secularism different from the western model of secularism which
Jinnah was a highly conventional politician, who can take no credit for original political thinking at any point. He began his career thinking within an ‘Indian’ framework, in the sense of nationalist opposition to British rule. Later, he renamed India’s Muslim community a ‘nation’ and continued his opposition from a narrower
Colonisation plays a role in defining people assumption overall on them; as well as their worthlessness can be felt on each member of the family at times when they needed each other. The British colonisers have left almost years ago but still there overpower and domination can be felt. The Indian’s had their own class and rules and all of these stories are looked up by the children’s in their families to help them to form their own identity and find their place in the world but their discomfort and difficulties are always dominated by wests. The relationship which India has with western countries. Instead of thinking in an independent way they are trying to move away from British culture and being a people oppressed by colonisation, they become a victim once again and continued to think like colonized as dominated by
No wonder how but there emerged a spark of revolt amongst Indians at various places of the country like Delhi, Meerut, etc. the spark in no less period of time grew to a fire and was spread almost to each and every part of the north India. The main reason found out for such a high scale revolt was the idea of colonialism and discipline and the enforcement of western culture style and architecture which Britishers tried to impose on the natives of India. One reason according to author can also be that Britishers never ever tried to understand the Indians, the people on whom they were ruling. They just imposed their orders on the Indians and expected them to follow it, which after a sufficient period of time hurt the feelings of people of India and made them realise that Britishers were just dominating them in their own mother land.
During colonial rule, Indian society was divided culturally and also politically that made it vulnerable. Inexplicit, chaotic political condition thrown country into anarchy, and that gave an opportunity to British colonizers. 1857's Mutiny taught British not to let Hindu and Muslim together that lesson made them to divide Bengal in 1905 and even at the time of transferring power they divide India into three parts: India, Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh) leaving poor masses in confused condition. This Present Novel My Temples too, concentrates the condition of people during and after Partition. This novel comprises many lively characters representing of young and educated Indians.
The British considered The Muslims responsible for the rebellion against them but virtually all it was because of the Hindu’s conspiracies. The British imposed English on the people by replacing Persian completely. English replaced Persian in all the fields including education. Urdu was given lower status as it belonged to the common man. The Muslims did not like it first as they considered Urdu their identity.
The ashraf often spoke Urdu and official work during the Mughal period was carried on inn Persian. In fact so strong was feeling that Bengali culture was not the Muslims that Muttlib, a sixteenth century poet, believed that translating religious books in Bengali was sinful. This sin however was politically necessary because the ordinary Bengali Hindus were very close to their Hindus neighbors in most aspects of behavior. The Muslim elite attempted to reform and the used the Bengali language for the purpose. Out of the necessity of describing Islamic concepts and rituals, the Bengali of the Muslim writers was different from Hindu Bengali.
Otherwise there will be large scale exercises towards a homogenous Indian identity. Such exercises have been led by fundamentalist groups of Hindu right in India. Hindu right has been gaining force since 1980s with the start of ‘Ramjanmabhoomi’ movement which culminated in destruction of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya and subsequently led to riots. This movement changed the social fabric of India for worst. Since then, there have been deep fractures in Indian society leading to differences in ethnic majority and minority community where Hindu right is striving for domination.