Middle English Language, like other important samples of human behavior, slowly but continuously expands from older forms into newer ones. Even more drastic changes were brought by the invasion and conquest of England by the Normans from northwestern France in 1066. Normans who were originally of Viking ancestry by the middle of the 11th century become Frenchified in language and culture. Their language is determined as Norman French – a dialect of Old French. The effects of the Norman Conquest were very deep in the field of language, so immense changes that brought a special name to the period of English after they begin to show themselves from 1100 to 1500 – Middle English.
The English language first started as dialects spoken by the Angles and Saxons in the 5th and 6th centuries, and later on mixed together until there was an Angelo-Saxon, which also is known as Old English. Old English actually consists of a pinch of Scandinavian from Viking settlers. In 1066 when the French-speaking Normans became the ruling class in the country after beating the English at the battle of Hastings, French words were gradually added to the vocabulary which mainly had to do with law, dress, art, food, and politics. As mentioned, the English language were only spoken by about 6 million people in 1558, and by time, went from being a common language to be a global language spoken by about 1,8 billion people in the world. So, how is it possible that a language spoken by a few millions, suddenly becomes the most important language in the world?
From the end of the Norman Conquest (1066) until after 1400, French was the official spoken and written language. The end of the Norman Conquest symbolized a real strength for the French and the total submersion of the English as the Dukes of Normandy kept English lands until 1217. Moreover, the kings of England were most of them speaking French, and took the power of the language for centuries. For example, Henry of Anjou (1154) and the French Queen Eleanor of Acquitaine, and later after Charles IV's death in 1328, a French king took the Throne of England. Even in literature, most of the famous texts were produced by Anglo-Norman's aristocracy (Ex : “Chanson de Roland”), creating a total barren for the English language's development.
She traces the impact of Latin on the development of English, prior to English, Latin was court language and most of the writers preferred to write in French, all the major works were written in Latin, Novum Organum [The Novum Organum, full original title Novum Organum Scientiarum (‘new instrument of science’), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620. The title is a reference to Aristotle 's work Organon, which was his treatise on logic and syllogism. In Novum Organum, Bacon details a new system of logic he believes to be superior to the old ways of syllogism. This is now
This includes the reduction (and eventual elimination) of most grammatical cases, and the simplification of noun, adjective and verb inflection. Middle English also saw a mass adoption of Norman French vocabulary, especially in areas such as politics, law, the arts, religion and other courtly language. Everyday English vocabulary remained mostly Germanic, with Old Norse influence becoming apparent. Anglo-Norman French became the language of the kings and nobility of England for more than 300 years (Henry IV, who came to the English throne in 1399, was the first monarch since before the Conquest to have English as his mother tongue). While Anglo-Norman was the verbal language of the court, administration and culture, though, Latin was mostly used for written language, especially by the Church and in official
14% of Lithuania’s citizens are fluent in Polish, 8% of the population speaks German and with French and Spanish being the fifth and sixth foreign languages spoken by only 2% and 1% of the population. In conclusion, social organization, customs and traditions, religion, language, arts and literature, forms of government and economic systems make up the elements of culture. Located in Europe, Lithuania founded in 1009 is a country grouped with Latvia and Estonia into Baltic States. The geography, religion and languages spoken are cultural changes that occurred throughout Lithuania's transformation from a former country of the Soviet Union to an independent Baltic
The English language is the 2nd most spoken language in the world. Topped only by Mandarin Chinese, but unlike Mandarin, English is the official language of many countries, and is the current global language. But for English to be this popular and to be spoken in so many countries, it had to start somewhere and have a rich history of its development. What is old English, where did it start, what influenced it to change, and how has it spread around the globe & become the English language we no know, and how long that took. All these will be shown briefly in the introduction, and spoken about with great detail later on.
But before answering these question I will talk about the history of the English language. The history of the English language can be separated basically in three periods: FIRST Old English: Between 450 and 1150 a. C. English 's main characteristic was the fact of being a flexile language, like Latin, Greek and many other Indo-European languages. This period may be considered as a period of formation and growth of English as a new language spoken in Great Britain. It was born out of the conjunction of several dialects of the Germanic tribes that invaded the territory after the fall of the Roman Empire, such as the Saxon, the Anglian, the Frisio and the Juto, specially from the first one. It also had the influence of other languages such as Celtic, Latin and Scandinavian.
Language rules have been changing rapidly over the last few centuries. One of those changes can be found when contrasting the voicing of the interdental sound between Middle English and present-day English. Middle English is an old form of the English language that was supposedly used between AD 1150 and AD 1500. A significant influence on its shaping came from the North Germanic languages and furthermore from the conquering Normans, who spoke a form of French and allowed loan words to find their way into the English language. Additionally spelling was influenced by them when the old English letter < þ>, called thorn, was replaced by the usage of with its two different sounds /ð/ (voiced) and /θ/ voiceless.
The process of dictionary codification to reach English standardization Introduction: English language passed many stages until it reached its current standard structure. In this essay, I am going to discuss the way that codified English language in dictionaries; in addition to stating the reasons behind recommending dictionaries. The essay will shed the light on the history of English language in the past until its standardization. As well known, in the past there was no English language in the world, but only Celtic languages were spoken with many dialects since Anglo- Saxons arrived in Britain. Therefore English was one of many dialects that is spoken by Western coast of Europe.