Braford E. Burns began writing The Poverty of Progress as a historical essay arguing against the “modernization” of nineteenth century Latin America. Burns argues that modernization was preformed against the will of the majority and benefited a small group of Creole Elite, while causing an exponential drop in the quality of life for folk majority. Burns supports his research through a series of dichotomies. Within the first twenty years of the nineteenth century the majority of Latin America gained independence from Spain.
Before the arrival of Spanish and Portuguese explores in Latin America in the late 1400’s, the New World was already a dangerous place. In Mexico, the Aztecs practiced human sacrifices. Amazonian tribes bitterly battled for land and resources. People died from easily curable diseases. It is a mistake to assume that the natives of the Americas lived as the famed “noble savages” of Rousseau—there stood empires and armies just as willing as the gold-thirsty Spanish to squash their enemies and take captives and take advantage of the poor and the outcasts.
Due to the native belief that their god Quetzalcoatl was going to come back, they mistook the European riding a horse as their god and invited him into their intricate kingdom. However, a civil war breaks out and the Europeans destroyed the empire with their more advanced weapons and European diseases such as smallpox. Similarly in Peru, Francisco Pizzaro destroyed the Inca Empire with advanced weapons and smallpox. Latin America was now a site of colonization as it became exploited of its natural resources and people.
By 1750, slavery was established as a legal institution in all of the 13 colonies and contributed to almost five percent of the England 's revenues. The enslavement of humans and the denial of basic human rights to slaves has been the basis of several wars such as the Haitian revolution, the American Civil War and numerous slave rebellions in America. The main reason behind the American Civil War was, indeed, slavery. The Republican Party in America was determined to end slavery, whereas many leaders in the Southern states wanted slavery to continue or they threatened to secede from the Union.
When the Spanish arrived in the Philippines, the diverse population of inhabitants were either animistic or Muslim. With the exception of Manila, the periphery of the islands had little economic value and returned relatively poor profits. Therefore, "[Spanish monarchs] resolved early that religious conversion of Filipinos was to be the only justification for holding the islands." Due to conflicts with the Dominican and Jesuit orders that did the missionary work in the Philippines, the Spanish appointed and trained Indios, those who were of fully Filipino descent, and Mestizos, those of half-Iberian, half-Filipino descent, to be priests. These Mestizos and Indios were on the lower end of the racial hierarchy of the Philippines, so the fact that they were able to gain prominent roles in the clergy show a very high level of commitment to proselytization by the Spanish.
The early seventeenth century was a period when the Irish deepen dissatisfaction in various spheres. Being oppressed by the English government, the Irish lost the liberty of religion, political power, and land-ownership. The Irish raised a rebellion in October 1641, turning the plight of England politics an opportunity.
Francisco Pizarro and Hernando Cortes have many things in common such as the two conquering civilizations in South America, and the two both being Spanish conquistadors. The Spanish empire would be the strongest empire during this time, the Spanish conquered the most land. The New World was being discovered mainly by the Spanish in the beginning, they conquered the bottom of North America, and the east side of South America. Pizarro and Cortes could have conquered without the use of steel. The reasons being are germs infected many of the Natives killing them while the Spaniards were
Soon after Columbus found the island, the Spanish enslaved the native people of the island called the Tainos. They were forced to mine and they all soon perished due to harsh conditions and diseases spread by the Europeans. After the natives died and the gold mines were mined out, the Spanish started bringing slaves from Africa and they were 90% of the population in Hispaniola. The island was full of plantations that the black slaves worked on and one plantation often had over 200 slaves working on it daily. The slaves started planting coffee beans, growing sugar canes, and raising cattle.
Because Columbus had limited amounts of ships he could not take as many natives as he would have preferred and this could be an indication to why he wrote his letter the way he wrote it. Ultimately having the support of the crown worked in his favor to exploit the land and its people. Columbus’ discovery of this new land led to the Columbian Exchange where animals, plants, and humans were “products” of the New World and transported to the Old World. Another product he came across was gold something he seems to leave out of this document. The way Columbus took advantage of the native people was brutal not only by enslaving them but by colonialism which essentially is a takeover.
Firstly, the idea of deadly diseases that the Europeans brought into the Americas will be discussed. This resulted in a staggering number of deaths. “The death tolls from the newly introduced European diseases often reached 80-90 percent. Entire groups of people vanished before the tidal wave of disease”- Americannetroots.net December 28, 2009 by Ojibwa. If a comparison was made between the native Indians and Europeans, it was true to say that the Indians were slightly healthier.
(Holton, 66) Most slave imports were sold on credit due to Virginia’s money crises. The Currency Act—which made printing legal paper tender illegal—did nothing to help alleviate the problem. (Holton, 62) Even big-shot, wealthy growers were unable to make some purchases without using credit. The problem was only more intense for the poor Virginian farmers, who made almost all purchases (especially slaves) on credit.
The Catholic faith is the most populous religion followed in the world, if the general religions were separated into their respective sects. This connection of 1.142 billion people spread from Europe to Africa and the Americas through a juxtaposed image of spread of religion in the most brutal sense in the mid to late 1400’s. As monarchs of Portugal, Spain, and Italy sent their explorers in search of spices to India, the explorers made an even more valuable discovery, a new world. During the Crusades, the Church was suffering losses against the growing Ottoman Empire.
In 1854, The BNA colonies signed a reciprocity agreement with the US. A reciprocity is an agreement to allow trade in certain goods without a tax. The treaty was signed for 10 years and after that, either side could break the deal. As weird as it may seem, the colonies didn’t trade with each other often and if they did, the goods had a very high tax on them. During the 1860’s the colonies worried that the US will break the reciprocity agreement..
That started Native/Colonist tension, and other notable war between these two was the Yamasee War (fought in South Carolina from 1715–1717). Later on the colonists went on to abuse of another group of people, this time the Africans. The first Africans were brought to Jamestown in 1619 (as slaves) but slavery didn’t really boom until the mid 1680’s when black slaves outnumbered white servants. Black slaves helped build the economic foundations of this nation of ours, and without them the colonists may have not flourished as they did. Even when they were ‘freed’, they were mistreated.
He, Alfred Crosby, wrote an article, called “Metamorphosis of the Americas.” He was explains how’s European was bring of environmental influences to New World. Chimalpahin was found the information from Mexico before and after the Spanish conquest. That’s there was an Indian historian whom was studying on Roman alphabet in 16th century and he inform us it’s 1492 before the invasion came. Spanish conquest many different places