1. List the structures and functions of the cardiovascular system. Do not forget blood and vessels are part of this system. The cardiovascular consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood. It has three functions one of them is that it transports nutrients, oxygen and hormones to cells throughout the body and removes wastes such as carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures. The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction.
Another organ is lymph node that is has specialized compartments where the immune system there and can encounter antigens. It shaped is small and bean shapes that are there in neck, armpits, abdomen and groin. As mentioned above, that there is lymphatic vessels, so that the immune cells and all the foreign particles will enter then exit through outgoing lymphatic vessels. When they in bloodstream, then they will transported to tissues to all the body. Then, they will back to the lymphatic system and repeat the
Role of the parts: Lymph nodes – Lymph nodes are enclosed, located around the lymph vessels. Lymph nodes are a key organ of the immune system and they make white blood cells which help fight off diseases. They also create antibodies to neutralize infections. They do this by producing lymphocytes protects the body from harmful microorganisms, unknown particles and removes litter from the lymph. Innerbody [online]
Host defence comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protect against various diseases is known as immune system(97). Immune system can be classified broadly in two sub-systems, the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell mediated immunity. In humans, the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier separate peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system which protects the brain(98). Malfunctioning of immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Less active immune system results in life threatening infections and various immunodeficiencies.
Explain the function of the heart and the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries. Referring to Louise Tucker 5th edition, the heart is an organ that pumps blood through the body via the circulatory system, supplying nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. According to Louise Tucker arteries are thick walled, hollow tubes with a fibrous outer covering, a middle layer of muscle and elastic tissue. The functions of arteries are: • Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body • Transport nutrients e.g. iron, zinc • Main artery is the aorta Structure: • Lumen, small passage • Thick, muscular and elastic walls Veins have three layered walls, their walls are much thinner,
In a sense, they act as the brain's eyes and ears allowing it to quickly assess metabolic parameters and make necessary adjustments. In humans, two of these sensors are the subfornical organ (SFO) and the vascular organ of the lateral terminalis (OVLT), both located near the hypothalamus. These clusters of neurons contain specialized surface proteins called osmoreceptors capable of sensing changes in the concentration of sodium and chloride ions. If the blood becomes too concentrated, the SFO and OVLT activate hypothalamic neurons, ultimately culminating in the sensation of
When an antigen invades the body, normally only those lymphocytes with receptors that fit the contours of that particular antigen take part in the immune response. When they do, so-called daughter cells are generated that have receptors identical to those found on the original lymphocytes. The result is a family of lymphocytes, called a lymphocyte clone. with identical antigen-specific
The blood seeps in the sinusoids on its way to the hepatic veins, and then to the vena cava. This filtration is ideal for hepatocytes to filter the blood, process and store nutrients, cleanse, and remove debris. 6. Cirrhosis leads to scarring and increased hydrostatic pressure in the hepatic portal vein. Explain why this increased venous pressure causes net filtration to increase in the hepatic capillaries, leading to ascites (swollen and fluid-filled interstitial space of the abdomen).