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The Investiture Controversy

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Throughout history, it's been evident that we rewalk the same path, time to time. In European history, a common theme is power being challenged. The conflict for power has been over kingdoms, empires, and even the ability to rule one's self, with freedom and rights. In the nonfictional book, A Little History Of The World by Ernst Gombrich, Gombrich displays how history does indeed repeat itself through short stories of European history. History has always been on an endless loop, and where we begin in this loop is 1072: The Investiture Controversy. The Investiture Controversy was a struggle for power between the Pope and the Emperor. The Pope challenged the Emperor on who was the rightful owner of the ability to appoint bishops. An agreement…show more content…
The Pope was selling indulgences, which would basically help the sinner who's buying the indulgence lessen his or her punishment for sinning. Martin Luther was against this because he believed people shouldn't have to give their money away to be able to repent, it should be free. In order to challenge the authority, the Pope, Luther creates Protestantism, a religion with similar characteristics to Christianity. This time period was known as the Reformation. The two events, the Investiture Controversy and the Reformation, both have a common theme: An individual of great power has their authority challenged. In the first event, it's the Emperor who's being challenged by the Pope, and in the second event, it's the Pope who's being challenged by Martin Luther. During the late 16th century, King Philip II ruled over Spain. His name carried infamy as he had thousands killed for heresy. While still in reign, King Philip had created the Spanish Armada, a fleet of 130 ships with tens of thousands of men. Philip had sent Duke of Alba to Holland and Belgium, and during his time there, more people were killed. The people fought against this and rebelled. In the year 1579, the citizens of these Low Countries had become free after getting rid of the Spanish troops who were in their domain at the time. In this event, the people challenged the King and his power, in the process,…show more content…
Both the citizens of his kingdom and Parliament had their feuds with the king. King Charles, in this beginning of his reign, married a girl who was of a different religion than his subjects, this offended them. The king was said to be the reason of a civil war; he killed his own people; and he committed treason. Cromwell, the man who wanted him executed, also had his own motives behind the executes: to gain power. Once again, a position of power is questioned and challenged, and in this case, it led to the demise of a human-being. The boundless loop of power struggles takes one final stop in France, specifically, the French Revolution. Starting in the late 1700s, the people of France had little rights, the economy was a mess, and there was a food shortage. More than 17,000 people had been executed during this time. Aristocrats were said to have committed "crimes against society". The crimes they committed were living a lavish lifestyle as the commoners below them suffered. As a way of revolting, aristocrats were killed via
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