It was Shariati who influenced Khomeini the most. His popularity and his ideas and theories about social change, Islam, Shiism, Western Imperialism among other provided him and the Iranians the path to take on to successfully wage a revolution. As previously discussed in the last sections, Shiism Islam was according to Shariati the answer to all problems. He “made Islam hip, in no small part by his connecting Islam to Third Worldism, including to political and cultural anti-Americanism (Clawson, 2004).” While the clerical establishment hated Shariati, Khomeini took a neutral standpoint, being well aware of Shariati's popularity among the Iranian youths. Likely in response to the interest for anti-Western seen in Shariati’s political theories, he began to use many Third Worldist phrases (Clawson,
In an attempt to find favor in the eyes of Turkish in the region, the Safavids decided to convert to a form of Shiism - he forced the Sunnis to convert to the religion, Twelver Shiism. Twelver Shiism was a religion where it was believed that there were twelve religious rulers after Muhammad, but the twelfth hid. Believers thought that the 12th would come back one day, and many even believed that Ismail was the 12th. The followers of this religion wore red hats
All of the Iranian adversaries banded together to bring down the rule of Reza Shah. The strength of all of the revolutionaries, including Marjane’s parents, easily matched the Shah. Essentially, the Shah and the Iranian people, such as the Satrapi family, had a negative relationship. Reza Shah was the successor of his father, and may have been even less popular with the Iranian people. Having a leadership style too unique for the Iranian’s taste, he quickly became very unpopular.
The followers of this school and the followers of Imam Abu Hanifa are majorly found in Pakistan, India, Turkey, Iraq and many more. Sunni are found wide spread throughout the country of Afghanistan. It is estimated roughly that 84% of Afghanistan’s population is Sunni which strictly adheres and follows the Hanafi school of
He conquered the trading centers of Timbuktu and Jenne. Sunni Ali increased the size of the Songhai Empire to include much of Mali. He relied on his highly mobile cavalry and naval control of the Niger River to build the Songhai Empire. Sunni Ali’s government was highly centralized unlike Mali’s. He favored a more traditional balance of power in which the interests of Muslim and non-Muslims were heeded.
Fariba, Laila, and Marriam were three Muslim women that Hosseini used to compare and contrast their qualities and ways of life. Unlike Laila and Marriam, Fariba’s husband did not control or abuse her, in fact, she showed more authority over him than what the typical Muslim wife would. She was unafraid to fight with her husband Babi, and she did not receive any consequences or beatings for lashing out against him. For example, as Fariba would yell at Babi, he would not obediently and quietly wait for her to stop raging (Page 108.) Furthermore, she did not become forced or stuck in a marriage she did not want.
With the death of Muhammad (the founder and leader of Islam) in 632 AD, there was disagreement over who would be the Islamic leader. The Safavid (known as Shi’ites) believed Ali (Muhammad’s son-in-law) should lead Islam. Ottomans (Sunni Muslims) did not agree with the Safavid on the succession of Muhammad. Many other divisions began as interpretations of the Islamic law differed. The Shi’ites were a minority and were often oppressed by the Ottomans.
Furthermore, it outlines the perplexity of religious discrimination. Although they bear some minor similarities, the differences between Sunni and Shia are pronounced. In the Kite Runner, Afghanistan is divided into Pashtuns and Hazaras. Pashtuns are the Sunni Muslim while the Hazaras are Shia Muslim. According to the book, Shai 's are minorities and they don’t have the freedom and ability to express their feelings and voices.
Introduction The Iranian Revolution in 1979 is regarded as one of the most influential events in the aggregate history of Iran. It was a catalyst in the history of Iran because many great changes occurred in this time period from 1979 onwards. The Iranian Revolution was a nationalist, populist, and Shi'a Islamic revolution that replaced the dictatorial monarchy with an Islamic republic. Pre-revolutionary Iran was run by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and was called the Pahlavi dynasty, who was supported by the United States of America. The demonstrations against the Shah began in October 1977 in which expanded into civil resistance against the Shah which was driven by religious elements.