Slavery ended in 1865, when the Union won the Civil War. The blacks had a bit more freedom and rights now (they could vote, move to live somewhere else, leave job,etc). This is when slavery ended but segregation began, the blacks were treated equally by the law but
However, there were some situations before their ratification that stayed the same after 1865. Segregation, especially in the South, took a huge toll on the lives of African-Americans. Many transportation systems and restaurants were segregated by color therefore, some were whites only and some had areas designated for black and area designated for whites. Even after the ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, by 1900, persons of color were required to be seperated from whites in railroad cars and depots, hotels, theaters, restaurants, barber shops and other establishments. Many of the segregation laws didn’t go away until after the Civil Rights movement which occurred from 1954 to
After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished, unleashing a vast amount of Blacks into American society. Following the Civil War was the Reconstruction Era which empowered Blacks. For example, the 14th and 15th amendment were passed which made blacks citizens with the same rights as any other slavery and gave blacks voting rights. Southern blacks begin taking control over the states as voting privilege allowed blacks to be voted into local government position and even a senator position in the U.S Congress. However, with the end of Reconstruction by the Compromise of 1877 which removed all federal troops in the south in exchange for Hayes withdrawal from the presidential election, Southern states made new constitutions to disenfranchised the blacks.
At the start is was not the aim to a abolish slavery but join America as a nation, abolition came later. This was because of the military necessity, growing anti-slavery sentiment in the north and the self-emancipation of many African Americans. This is where they fled enslavement as Union troops and went through the South, five days after the bloody Union victory at Antietam in September 1862, Lincoln made it official that “slaves within any state, or designated part of a state in rebellion shall be then and thenceforward, and forever free” (Networks, 2015). Nearly 100 years after this the African Americans in the Southern states still inhabited as starkly unequal world of disenfranchisement, segregation and various forms of oppression, this included violence because of the colour of their skin. The “Jim Crow” this law barred African Americans from bathroom, classrooms, theatres and train cars.
Fredrick Douglas was a slave when he was young around 11 years old and eventually one day he ran away from slavery. The thing that is different about him to other slaves he made it out of slavery and he can tell his story from being a slave and being free. In the 1850s Fredrick Douglas broke and followed the strictly moralist brand of “abolitionism” led by William Lloyd Garrison. Racial equality was very important to Douglas he believed that men and woman no matter their race or gender should have a fair say in everything.
The Compromise of 1877 was a corrupt agreement between three powerful southern states and Rutherford B. Hayes that led to him being elected President and the stripping away from African American rights. After the Civil War, “Lives of black slaves had improved greatly and there was hope for emancipation of slaves in those states. However, The Compromise of 1877 took away all hope for slaves.” (Source 8) This “compromise” made slaves’ lives even more difficult than it was before.
After the Civil War, between the years, 1865 through 1870 the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments was adopted by the United States. The United States abolished slavery, providing equal protection for freed slaves, and prohibited discrimination of colored voters. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments granted former slaves the freedom to pursue happiness, but in 1868, the “separate but equal” doctrine kept these amendments from bearing fruit. For nearly a century the “separate but equal” doctrine promoted segregation, and the Supreme Court it was constitutional to keep blacks and whites separate as long as they had equal rights to education, public transportation, and restrooms. However, the definition of equality in the south was very vague and ambiguous.
This amendment brought equality among all the citizens in front of law which meant every citizen were same as White Americans. With the rising of 14th amendment, the compensation issue for emancipating slaves was controlled in the southern states. Then after 13th and 14th amendment, the 15th amendment passed which granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on the account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (Primary Documents in American History 1). The 15th amendments allowed all the citizens the right to vote even if they were of a different race or skin color or even they were former slaves.
“Beginning in the late 1870s, Southern state lawmakers passed laws that required Whites and Blacks to attend separate schools and to sit in different areas on public transportation.” (“Jim Crow Laws” 1). People thought these laws were needed because “The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations: whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America;” (“
“KA-POW!!!!” The gun goes off in a matter of milliseconds. The bullet goes flying through the at nearly 1,700 mph(miles per hour). It hits it’s target in under a second. A National, historical, and honorable hero was shot, and fell down, dead.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision formally introduced “Jim Crow” laws to the nation. The U.S. Supreme Court ultimately maintained that, “as long as equal facilities were provided to citizens, classification of individuals by race was neither a violation of the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause nor inhibitory of the Black community’s advancement” (Guthrie, 2004, p 7-8). For the era, which followed the Supreme Court ruling, African Americans struggled for an equal life in society and tried to gain rights. With the creation of the NAACP in 1909 it “became instrumental in advocating the rights of its minority constituency…”
Particularly in the South, they continued to seek opportunities to legal slavery. As a result, Southerners pass a state law, Black Codes, during reconstruction. This law restricted the civil rights and public activities of legally freed African Americans. Owning weapons, freedom of movement, and land ownerships were against Black Codes. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896), the court case that upheld authority of the state law claiming, “separate-but-equal facilities for whites and blacks” , led up to another significant factor, segregation, which arose to be controversy in mid-1900s.
With the Fifteenth Amendment, no one in the U.S. nation was able to deny the right for African American men to vote freedom was coming back. Congress wanted to protect them by passing the Black Codes
Before slaves were freed, they could not marry anyone. After the Civil War, the Black Codes in Mississippi improved the lives of African Americans by allowing marriage. Even though, the state allowed marriage, there was heavy restriction to the code. For example, in Section 3, the document states, “that is shall not be lawful for any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to intermarry with any white person… and any person who shall so intermarry shall be guilty of felony.” This shows that although slaves are freed, the state did not treat them as ordinary people.
Reconstruction lasted from 1865 to 1877. One of the goals of Reconstruction was to determine what was to be done with the four million freed slaves. Reconstruction succeeded in forming a republican government, new social legislation, and schools for African Americans. Although there was harsh, unconstitutional, and simply immoral treatment of African Americans, Reconstruction sent them on almost a century long path to equality. Before the Radical Republicans took over the government, Democrat, Andrew Johnson was President.