Scapegoating: Taking Heat From Someone Else's Flame In an interview on Faith and Religion with Bill Moyers from PBS, Margaret Atwood once said, “Under stress, society will always scapegoat a person or a group of people.” This belief is shown in the texts The Crucible by Arthur Miller, the cartoon “It’s okay -- We’re hunting Communist” by Herb Block, and her own poem “Half Hanged Mary”. In The Crucible Salem, Massachusetts suddenly has a problem with witchcraft. Most of the townspeople and farmers accuse one another of witchcraft either for land or revenge. In “It’s okay -- We’re hunting Communists” the government is chasing after Communist but hurting people in the meantime. In “Half Hanged Mary” the town hangs a woman called by Mary Webster for witchcraft.
The church was seen as a moral for the African American society during the reconstruction era stated Professor Jenkins. The church influenced couples to get married and divorced. For instance in Climbing Up To Glory it was referenced that in 1849 a charge was made against Julia Nalen, an African American woman for leaving her husband and marrying again, she was later expelled from the church where she worshipped. Further, Jenkins illustrated that some African Americans that attended these biracial services found the services to be very boring and hypocritical because the white ministers will tell the African Americans to follow and obey the ten commandments, when the ministers themselves are committing sinful acts such as; murder, theft, rape. African Americans did not feel that they were receiving anything substantial out of the sermons.
The movement’s main goal was to stop the selling and drinking of alcoholic products. The idea of prohibition started in the 1800s with the group called American Temperance Society. The group was founded in 1826 and their main objective was to get the people to voluntarily pull themselves away from alcohol (“Prohibition”). Religions also joined this line of thinking and they became a big advocate for the movement. Women began to speak up too, as they would tell how their husbands would not support their family, and some would even speak how their husbands beat them while they were drunk.
Southern leaders were outraged; the 44 teachers who supported the “nine” lost their jobs. Eisenhower explained that he did what he did not to favor integration, but to obey the federal law. (Roark, P. 924) What set civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s apart from earlier acts of black protest was its widespread presence in the South, with a large number of people involved, their willingness to confront the white institutions directly and the use of non-violent protests and civil disobedience to bring about change. The arrest of Rosa Parks in December 1955 is probably the most famous example of this. The African Americans boycotted the bus system in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, the Montgomery bus boycott lasted a full year.
In the book To Kill a Mockingbird the main character, a young girl that goes by the name of Scout, goes on adventures of understanding how the world works. As the book progresses she has to shift her perspective on the way the things operate. She becomes aware of problems such as: poverty, the justice system and racism. Racism is very present in her town, some people try go as far as to take a black person 's life for something as simple as their appearance. In Nazi Germany their dictator named Adolf Hitler had similar beliefs towards the Jewish people.
In 1866, The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), which existed in almost every southern state, were established to resist the republican party 's policies establishing equality for the black people. The KKK 's primary goal was to reestablish white supremacy. They did this by democratic legislative victories. At first the Klan held rallies, marches, and parades, denouncing immigrants, Catholics, Jews, blacks, and organized labor. After the Civil rights Movement in 1960, their focus was more specifically towards black people and white activists, including bombing of black school and churches.
She grew up in the southern United States under the Jim Crow Segregation and confided racial discrimination. During the late 1940’s her family moved into a neighborhood that subsequently became known as “Dynamite Hill”, because of Kuhn Klux Klan terrorism against African American Families being interrogated into the previously all white community. As a child, Davis was considered a part of an Elite among impoverished peers, at the age of fifteen Davis became active in Youth Organizations associated with the Communist Party. Growing up for Davis she had it pretty hard staying in racism communities where Kuhn Klux Klan terrorism against black people was a mental realm of slavery for Davis. Reflection of the black women role in the
A group called the Ku Klux Klan was formed, the members of the KKK waged an underground campaign of intimidation and violence directed towards white and black Republican leaders. The Southern people are not so welcoming towards African Americans, they wish that they would either return to being slaves or go back to Africa or where they were taken from. These laws affected both the north and the south. The North had a big hand in helping the South
Malcolm X was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist who changed his last name to X to signify his rejection of his “slave” name (THE ESTATE OF MALCOLM X). Malcom X encouraged and mentored many disadvantaged young blacks searching for confidence in segregated America. Malcom also challenged the mainstream civil rights movement and the nonviolent pursuit of integration championed by Martin Luther King Jr. Malcom X thought that blacks should defend themselves against white aggression “by any means necessary” (THE ESTATE OF MALCOLM X). His life changed in 1939 when is mother was committed to the State Mental Hospital in Kalamazoo, consequently placing Malcolm in a juvenile home. One of his teachers told him to become a carpenter because the goal of becoming a lawyer was real for him.
The Liberty Party was an attempt by the abolitionists to enter politics as a separate party. Free Blacks in the northern part of the U.S began telling their stories which were then printed as narratives which backed the antislavery cause. Conflict rose between Black and White abolitionist leading to separate groups. The Underground railroad was also a prevalent part of the movement. Alongside this, women saw similarities between slavery and their own problems, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked to organize the first gather for women’s rights at Seneca Falls in 1848.
Since their establishment after the Civil War, in 1865, the Ku Klux Klan is known as one of the most famous hate groups in America. The white cloaked Knights use lynching, riots, and demonstrations, to spread their hate filled messages toward any ethnic or religious groups who are not white, nor Christians. But despite their actions, the Klan still promoted themselves as “100% American” to gain support from United States citizens. Although they promoted themselves as “100% American”, the knights of the Ku Klux Klan sought to deprecate the rights of those whose views differed from theirs, through violent actions. The knights of the Ku Klux Klan promotes themselves as “100% American” through their message to the citizens of America.
The KKK was based off of racial discrimination, but over time they also adopted anti-semitic qualities along with strong political prejudices as well. According to historylearningsite, “A sinister group was established which was designed to spread fear throughout the Black population that still lived in the southern states. This was the KKK. Only WASP’s could belong to it — White Anglo-Saxon Protestants. It is a common myth that the KKK targeted only the Blacks – also hated were the Jews, Catholics, liberals etc but most hatred was directed against the poor black families in the south who were very vulnerable to attack.” The quote shows how the KKK was born from, but not limited to, racism and discrimination amongst the Southern population and was willing to enforce their beliefs by any means necessary.
If someone “hangs for a witch he forfeit up his property” (Miller, 99) and then others would fight to get their property. In the Red Scare, those accused lost their jobs and their well earned respect. For example, Helen Keller’s reputation is practically spotless but once branded with communism, that went downhill. In the Crucible, Rebecca Nurse was accused of witchcraft, who was seen as the “mother” of Salem and had a pure reputation. This just shows that people blindly believed what they were told without really thinking about it.