Valenzuela et. al. (1995)  has proposed a hydrometallurgical procedure for the separation of molybdenum from Chilean molybdenite concentrate. The molybdenite concentrate was first leached with nitric acid originated from the reaction of NaNO3 and H2SO4, which provided a solid phase, composed of MoO3 and residual solution. Molybdenum was separated with alkylphosphonic acid PC-88A by solvent extraction method, from the leach liquor containing copper, rhenium and iron among other impurities.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The Copper ions will react with Iodine ions to form CuI and I2 in a two-step reaction below: 2 Cu2+ (aq) + 2 I- (aq) 2 Cu- (aq) + I2 (s) ----1 2Cu+(aq) + 2I-(aq) CuI(s) CuI2 precipitate would decompose immediately to from CuI. Excess Na2S2O3 is added to react with Iodine to form I- ions which can be filtered out via suction filtration, the residue being CuI. I2(s) + 2 Na2S2O3 (aq) 2 NaI (aq) + Na2S4O6
When it comes to ethylene oxidation, the ethylene will produce acetaldehyde through Wacker process and then oxidized with the oxygen present in the air to form acetic acid. Details on the Specific Operation Involved Main Contributors: Goh Tuan Sing, Pan Wen Tong & Ting Ze Xian Methanol Carbonylation: Monsanto process In the early 1960s, the Monsanto process was first developed by a German based chemical company, BASF (originally stood for Badische Anilinund Soda-Fabrik). Ethanoic acid is produced with the reactants methanol and carbon monoxide, with cobalt and iodide added as catalyst. The temperature and pressure are conditioned at 300°C and 700 atm respectively. In 1966, Monsanto Company used Rhodium/Iodide catalyst which enabled the conditions to be milder at 150-200°C and 30-60 atm.
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution.
Grignard reagent is added to get an alcohol which may be secondary alcohol or tertilly alcohol and it also may form a primary alcohol, if an organometallic halide is added to formaldehyde. We can also get alkanes from this reagent by adding it to water, this type of reactions happens by the expulsion of weak acid from it's salt and using another strong acid. In general, in Grignard reagent it's be the addition of an organomagnesium halide to aldehyde or ketone . 1- Grignard reagents react with oxygen of the air or moisture but the air must be replaced with an inert gas like, argon or nitrogen because these reagents are so sensitive to moisture and oxygen. Properties of Grignard reagents : 2- Grignard reagents dissolve rabidly in two types of ethers, alicyclic ether and aliphatic ether and they also dissolve in other solvents.
He then demonstrated that the crystalline form differed from one animal species to another. Using his own newly constructed gas pump, he found that oxygen formed a loose, dissociable compound with hemoglobin, which he called "oxyhemoglobin." He renamed the iron free hematin ‘hematoPorphyrin’. Henceforth, researches were carried out on porphyria by various researchers. Ref: http://www.porphyriafoundation.com/about-porphyria/history-of-porphyria 2.
Moreover, the desorpsi interaction of phosphate in the copolymer is more dominated by inter and intra-molecular interactions and hydrogen bonding between the functional groups in the copolymer with phosphate anion. At pH 10.05 solution is suspected OH- ion will take the H atom in -NH2, so that it make -NH- group because an excess of electrons. The negatively charged copolymer repel each other with a phosphate anion so that the amount of phosphoric is out of the copolymer
In some cases Oxygen is also introduced as a reactant carrier to control the characteristics of the film. B. Vapour phase reaction Constituent species in the gaseous phase react in the presence of inert, oxidizing or even some reducing atmosphere to form the desired product. Thus SiO2 films can be produced by the reaction of SiCl4 vapour with carbon dioxide in the pressure of hydrogen gas and this is known as Philips process. The reaction goes in the following way SiCl4 + CO2 + H2 SiO2 + CCl4 + H2 --------------- (3.9) SnO2 films often used as metal oxide resistors can be prepared from SnCl4 vapours in presence of water and HCl vapours at a temperature about 500˚C and the reaction can be represented by the equation SnCl4 + 2H2O + HCl SnO2 + 4HCl + HCl ---------------