ABSTRACT: The study tends to depict how Eliot treated women as mere second sex in his poetry. It further explores Eliot’s misogynic, female-hater temperament and the reasons behind this abhorrence against women. The subjugation of women, throughout centuries, from ancient to present time has been done by male in patriarchal society. Eliot in his poetry, through the allusions of myth, history, religion, literature and philosophy not only narrates the degenerated state of women but also contributes to it by his fun, ridicule and satire of women. Instead of breaking the notion of patriarchy, Eliot becomes a torch-bearer of patriarchy and contributes to perpetuate the process subjugation of women by strengthening the mechanisms of women subordination.
Feminism is one of the critical and theoretical studies that are reshaping literary studies. Many feminist theories have been developed in different places and different periods of time. Each of these theories and studies criticize the way that the economic, political or traditional systems deal with women’s rights. Some of the feminist perspectives protest against the distinction and discrimination against women in modern society (Johnson 57). In this paper I will concentrate on how some feminist theories approach objectification by reviewing many different definitions of objectification; second I will explain the wrong thing about objectification and then what is ok about to see if they all those feminist critics agree about the idea of objectification.
Using such female authors as Jane Austen and Emily and Charlotte Bronte, she examined women and their struggles as artists, their position in literary history and need for independence. She also invented a female fellow of William Shakespeare, a sister named Judith to at times emphasize her feministic ideals. Woolf proved to be an innovative and influential 20th Century author. In some of her novels she didn’t follow the rules of plot and structure, but she chose to use stream-of-consciousness to emphasize the psychological aspects of her characters, as she claimed and asked the artists to be concerned with the fact that the psychological facet of the character is an
Finally, it will conclude by briefly discussing the significance of the extract within the novel’s wider themes. Austen creates bathos, by using subtle causticness and parody, and intertextually burlesquing, influential sensationalist and sentimental novels of the time, particularly Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794). Essentially, by writing in this style, Austen emphasises the ordinariness, patriarchal abuse, and general oppression of women that was present then in everyday domestic life (Realisms, p. 59). These subtle narrative techniques, were key elements Austen used to modify public perception of the novel’s expectations, which conveys the concept of ‘reading’ itself, and defines the novel as a genre. Principally, by writing in this style, Austen increases the reader’s interest, defining Northanger Abbey, as not only an ironic disclosure of satire, but a
An interesting aspect worth noting in these three novels, Wuthering Heights, Wide Sargasso Sea and Grass is singing, is the concept of Othering the characters of female protagonists. In Grass is Singing, it can be seen in Dick Turner’s validation of his own gender role by creating “other” in Mary. Jean Paul Sartre in his book, Being and Nothingness, has explained how one tries to create the “Other” in order to validate his own identity. Bell Hook in her essay, “Understanding Patriarchy” has explained how patriarchy has adverse effect on both man and women: by creating definite gender role for both of them. The fusion of Sartre’s concept of “other’ and Hook’s emphasis, on patriarchal adversary effect on both the genders, reveals another interesting aspect of the patriarchal subjugation of women.
The first critic was Nicola Watson, who argued about the origins, composition and reception. In addition Nicola explained the influence on the subsequent development of the girls and the feminist. The publication of Little Women in 1868 arguably inaugurated a founding myth of American girlhood, ensured the success of the transatlantic phenomenon of fiction for girl and contributed importantly to the genre of family story. The novel 's classic status may have served as much to conceal as revealing its originality in canon of children 's and adult literature alike. Critical reception of Little Women has tended to hinge on what value is accorded to the end novel.
In the novel Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë, the reader is presented with depictions of many aspects of Brontë’s own life. The novel is a classic example of a Bildungsroman, written in the Victorian period, and many characteristics are focal in the text, one of which was of course gender inequality, as men seemed to rule the society in which Jane Eyre lived in. A woman couldn’t be successful in this period without a powerful man. Jane Eyre however, sought to prove everyone wrong as she attempted to abolish the rules of this Victorian society. “The novel suggests possibilities for gender subversion within a seemingly normative romance narrative” (Godfrey, 2005).
This sounds inexplicable suggesting a sort of “male social cohesion”. Feminist consciousness has certainly given an ardour and excitement to literary studies. A reasonably new perception of women in literature and the works by women writers have unveiled some of the prejudices at work in their traditional approaches to literature hitherto dominated by masculine perspective. A woman’s experiences of life as a member of a gender biased society formulate her psyche. Moreover, she is bound by certain other factors such as her individual circumstances, societies expectations related to age, creed, class, race, etc.
gave rise to studies that situated the translated text in its social and historical circumstances and considered its political role, paying attention to ideological values, to cultural, economic and political inequalities, to individual choices and also, most importantly, to the ethics of translation.’ (Castro: 2013:). As Simon also states, translation studies have also been concerned with the central issues of feminism, which are the distrust of traditional hierarchies and gendered roles, deep suspicion of rules that define fidelity and the questioning of the universal standards of meaning and value (1996:10). Consequently, within the framework of a new understanding of fidelity, which is concerned with the strong reflection of women’s experiences
Women in India started writing in English from long back. It took over a period then they could contribute distinguish English literature. During the 19th century, the more women became the part of India’s reformist movement against the British rule, the more they wrote on the themes of the country’s freedom struggle. Over the years, the feminist ideologies came to the English literature of India. As, Chaman Nahal Writers about feminism in India: “Both the awareness of woman’s position in society as one of disadvantage or in generally compared with that of man and also a desire to remove those is advantages.” (16) What women write is all about female subjectivity and with feminine perception.