The Maillard Reaction: Browning

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The Maillard reaction, also known as browning is a type of non-enzymatic browning which involves the reaction between amino acids (free amino group) and simple sugars (carbonyl groups). This reaction can create flavour and changes in the colour of dough. Maillard reaction is generally only begun to occur above 285 ̊ F (140 ̊ C). TEXTURE The crust and crumb come from the same original dough will have different properties with different heat-moisture treatment (Vanin, Lucas and Trystram, 2009). In observation, the doughs which are made from wheat flour and whole wheat flour are baked at different temperature which are 150 °C, 190 °C, 220 °C will have the different texture for crust and the crumb in 10 minutes, 20 minutes or 30 minutes. For the…show more content…
Wheat flour is made from finely ground wheat berries (Roehl, 1996). Whole wheat flour is made of ground whole grain wheat kernels which are grain’s nutrient-rich bran and germ (Woodruff, 1996). Generally, the texture for crust and crumb of dough which made from whole wheat flour is harder than the wheat flour. For example, at 150°C in 10 minutes, wheat flour has the softest crust and crumb compared to whole wheat flour dough. On the other hand, at 220°C in 30 minutes, the crusts of the wheat flour and whole wheat flour have extremely hard texture but the crumb of the whole wheat flour is harder than the wheat flour. This is because whole wheat flour high in wheat kernels, lower gluten content and result in denser baked good and harder structure (Preedy, Watson and Patel,…show more content…
The aroma in baking temperature of 190°C in baking time of 10, 20 and 30 minutes are yeasty, malty and slightly roasted respectively. While in highest temperature (220°C), the aroma for 10, 20 and 30 minutes are malty, slightly roasted and roasted respectively. From the observation, it can prove that the longer time to bake or higher the temperature to bake the bread, the less yeasty the smell is. This is due to as Maillard reaction are conduct in longer time and higher temperature, the faster the reaction take places and produce different aroma. In the wheat flour and whole wheat flour, the most yeasty smell of bread is in baking temperature of 150°C in 10 minutes. When compare both, wheat flour bread will be more yeasty compare with whole wheat flour bread. The most roasted smell also takes the longest time and also the highest temperature to bake for both flours. Nevertheless, the smell of whole wheat flour will be less roasted compare with wheat flour

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