The Major Causes Of Urbanization

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The world is experiencing the largest swell of urban growth in history. More than half of the world 's population now lives in cities and towns, and by 2030 this number will increase to about 5 billion. A big part of this urbanization will unfold in Asia and Africa, bringing huge environmental, economic, and social transformations (UNFPA). Urbanization is accompanied by a number of challenges resulting from the concentration of population in major cities; environmental degradation has happened very quickly, resulting in a lack of basic needs, deterioration of water quality, air pollution and the problems of solid waste disposal and risks (Cronin, 2012). The main causes of the environmental degradation in the city are the rapid urbanization and the deficiency in the provision and maintenance of housing and infrastructure. Furthermore, these involve the exposure to traffic hazards, lead, air pollution, and the amplification of heat waves of Urban Heat Island. As the increasing reliance on fossil fuels, and as the increasing number of urban consumers and their materials needs, cities contribute to severe hazards on the biosphere including climate change (Agrawal, 2014). A significant rise in the number of urban dwellers has contributed in the slum growth. It is characterized by overcrowding, poor housing, low incomes, a lack of sanitation and safe water, and physical and legal insecurity (Cronin, 2012). The slums, due to the lack of the basic infrastructure, also resulting in

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