Thomas Robert Malthus, the founder of modern demography is recognized in many global spheres. He studied demographic trends and limitations from the middle of the 18th to the 19th century where the population rose to 1 billion people in 1804 (“PopulationMatters.org”). However, according to the World Population Clock, the current number is over 7.6 billion people. With increasing population, Malthus’s theory stating that “the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man” (Malthus, 1798,p.4) becomes vital in today’s context too. While Malthus suggests certain preventative and positive checks assuring the efficient management of our food sources, in today’s context, other forms of checks and balances are still discussed.
Jeremy Gerringer Dr. Young History of Economic Thought 14 March 2018 Principle of population William Godwin's, An Inquiry Concerning Political Justice, influenced Malthus to write his book, "Essay on the Principle of Population". In the book, Malthus discusses his concern for the world population. For an economy to well-main itself, it must constantly check itself against the population. Agriculture is another important factor that Malthus discusses in his essay. He goes on to examine the relationship between world population and the world food supply.
Using this as an example, in mathematics language, if we only take birth rate into consideration, the gradient of one point of the fish population curve will then reflect the birth rate, which in other words means – how faster the population is changing at this point. “The derivative of with respect to x usually written as or . The derivative of y with respect to x is usally written as or . If we let the population be N at time T, and the birth rate be b, then we will have
1.0 INTRODUCTION Population and demography are two closely related terms and for the purpose of this study we define them for better understanding. Population- according to dictionary.com is defined as the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area while Demography has been described as the "quantitative study of human populations" (Ross 1982). Population growth refers to the increase in the total number of individuals in a population. It is determined by the number of births, number of deaths and inflow or outflow of people from that locality. The scientists have gone further to quantify it using various parameters e.g.
The theories; popular in the1950s and 1960s holds that development takes a linear stage kind of progression. Modernization advocates who include among others; Talcott Parsons (), Rostows () and Harrod () argued that contact with developed societies would accelerate progress in what was considered to be stagnant traditional societies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. ”Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents”
1. The Malthusian population theory Before one goes on to discuss population growth, one has to first acclimatize to the dynamics of population growth. Such dynamics are brought into play by the Malthusian population theory. The Malthusian population theory is that, the procreative instinct of mankind is such that population always increases as fast as the means of support will admit (Patek, 1906). Patek (1906) continues by stating that the idea of Malthusian is such that no man has a right to assume obligation of paternity until there is reasonable certainty that he will be able to maintain his offspring until they are self-supporting.
The food security in the in the 21st century population has grown a massive amount and it is predicted to reach 9.5 billion people by 2050. Malthusianism is the idea that “Population growth is potentially exponential while the growth of the food supply is arithmetical at best.” This theory and political/economic thought originated from Thomas Robert Malthus who was an english cleric and scholar. The opposite opinion which are the Anti-Malthusians who are advocated by Ester Boserup who believes
The system described by Malthus, known as “Malthusian Trap”, shows evidence of how, in the pre-industrial period, population went through a period of stagnation. Malthus’s doctrine funds itself on the idea that “Population has a tendency to multiply itself beyond the conditions of subsistence”. In particular, marriages would increase arithmetically while the progeny geometrically, but population is maintained at a mere level of subsistence for births are subject to moral restraint, so as to define the life of men a “struggle of existence” (Welling 1888). Additionally, Malthus found a correspondence between population and food supply, i.e. the for-mer depends on the latter in a way that kept population at an equilibrium level through two possible ways: preventive checks (contraception, late age of marriage), and positive checks (war, famine) (Lesthaeghe 1980).
In addition, the continuous benefits of modernization in terms of improved health care services and other social securities should be made available to the populace, the majority whom are poverty stricken. Finally, the pursuit of diversifying the economy should be relentless, so that the channels of stimulating growth and development will not be neglected. This work tests the efficiency of population growth on economic development in 10 poor countries based on Malthusian Population Theory. Malthus proposes the principle that human populations grow geometrically, while food production rises with an
Macro fundamentals are believed by the economists to determine forex rates such that a nation’s currency directly affects economic growth rate, trade balance, inflation rate fall, and interest rate. He suggested two theories that can come up with a model for determining the forex rate. The first theory is the quantity theory of money. This theory states that an increase in money supply tends to increase the domestic price level and it can come up with a model for the long-run equilibrium of forex rate. However, this theory cannot take into account the fluctuations of forex rate.