Figure 1 Interpretation of the data Graph 1 indicates that as the dry mass of the water rocket increases, the maximum altitude it can reach when launched decreases. The R2 value, which indicates the strength of the correlation between two variables, where one indicates perfect correlation and zero indicates no correlation, in this graph is 0.989. Moreover, the correlation is negative, which can be seen from the coefficient of the X in the equation (-40.667x+ 30.02). For every gram the rocket’s mass increases the maximum height gets reduced by 0.0407 meters. This specifies that as the dry mass of the water rocket increases, the maximum height it can reach decreases.
The science of calorimetry is that the energy gained or lost by the water is equal to the energy lost or gained by the object. In calorimetry to find the amount of heat that was absorbed or released (q) by multiplying its mass (m), its specific heat capacity (c) and its change in thermal energy (∆T or Tf - Ti). The formula q=mc∆T is what was used in this experiment to determine the specific heat capacity of a small lead sinker. All substances are made up of particles that carry energy. The particles move faster when they contain thermal energy that is in the form of heat.
This column – of a large surface area with glass or ceramic – provides ample contact between the vapor and liquid phases. A temperature gradient is formed because the head of the system is now further from the flask. Factors that affect the temperature gradient include the rate of heating and vapor removal from the system’s stillhead. Upon heating, the vapor of compound A rises, reaching a distance at which it no longer has enough energy to maintain its gaseous form; at this point, the molecules re-enter the liquid state. This process of rising up, condensation, and revaporization eventually results in vapor comprising 100% of substance A.
Self-Design Lab Rubric Name(s): Cassidy Gale Redding TITLE: The Affect Different Liquids have on Dry Ice’s CO2 Release I. DESIGN: How long does it take a piece of dry ice to sublimate in different liquids? Background Theory: Dry ice is the solid form of CO2, therefore it sublimates instead of melts. Sublimation is a solid turning into a gas instead of a liquid. When placed in water, dry ice reacts by sublimating faster because of the added temperature.
The reaction is first order with respect to propanone and acid, and zero order with respect to iodine. This means that if a concentration of propanone or acid is increased, the rate increases as well, in liner……. However, when the concentration of iodine is changed, the rate is not affected. This is due to it’s reaction mechanism. One way the reaction to occur, is explain as following: In the rate equation k is rate constant.
Then, the averages for each test were calculated and recorded in Table 2. The results were then transferred to Graph 1, which displays the effect of change in volume on pressure and illustrates the inverse relationship between the variables. Graph 2 demonstrates 1/volume versus pressure, and should have a linear best fit line that goes through the origin. However, due to the line of best fit not going through the origin, it is indicted that there are random and systematic errors. Graph 3 demonstrates pressure times volume versus pressure and should be a horizontal line.
Furthermore, the confinement time, which is a measure of how quickly power is lost to the environment is given by τ_E=W/P_loss where W is the energy density and Ploss is the energy loss rate per unit volume (Lawson, J. “Some”). Finally, by taking the volume rate, which is a function of the number of reactions per volume per time, and multiplying by the charge of the particles, we get a quantity that we know must be greater than the power loss, per the initial criterion (Lawson, J. “Some Criteria for a Useful”). Doing some algebra, we can then reduce to the expression 〖nτ〗_E≥L T/σv where L is a constant, T is the temperature of the system, σ is the nuclear cross section, or chance that two particles have to collide, and v is the relative velocity of the two particles.
Analysis: Although only a simple water bottle rocket, it still applies to basic rocket theory. The simplest equation which applies is Tsiolkovsky's equation which describes a device that can apply acceleration to itself (a thrust) by expelling part of its mass with high speed and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum. In short the momentum which the rocket gains is that momentum which the water loses as it is expelled. The equation is: ∆v=V_e ln(m_o/m_f ) Where: ∆v = change in velocity (m/s) V_e= velocity of exhaust leaving nozzle (m/s) m_o= initial mass of rocket, including water mass (kg) m_f = final mass of rocket, after water is expelled (kg) Velocity of exhaust can be calculated by: V_e=√(2(p_in-p_out ) )/ρ_w Where: p_in= internal
Nevertheless a high concentration of chloride ion in solution because of fully ionization of counter-ions, the solubility improved in compared with CVD. Moreover, based on previous study by Hamed et al. a change in CVD solubility could be related to ionic strength of solution. It is another important parameter in evaluating solubility of CVD and it decreases solubility (14). Ionic liquids can produce higher ionic strength in solution medium and it is a possible reason for decreasing of solubility in acidic medium whenever CVD is fully ionized.
The osmotic pressure coefficient must be determined for different solutions. It has been determined by various researchers and investigators to be less than unity and slightly increases with increasing solution concentration if the solute is not known or it is complex, we have to use mass concentration instead of molar concentration. For convenience: this model assumed to be at a constant temperature and is incorporated with the other constant Y which simplifies osmotic pressure to solute concentration coefficient. The value of Y was assumed t-o be constant over the operating range of the solute concentration. In corporation of osmotic pressure equation into the expression for the solute flux Eq.