Consent in counseling context is referred to as informed consent “The doctrine of informed consent, defined as respect for autonomy, is the tool used to govern the relationship between physicians and patients. Its framework relies on rights and duties that mark these relationships. The main purpose of informed consent is to promote human rights and dignity.”(Kettle 2007) Furthermore discuss all aspects of the counselling process which will enable the client to understand the freedoms, rights and any other important facts of the process. As was said before if the person is considered a minor we must explained to them consent from a parent or guardian must be given especially for the pastoral context. Explaining the rights will give the client a greater insight of breaches of confidentiality which may occur and information disclosure.
The principle of informed consent come about in the late 1940s when physicians faced prosecution in the Nuremberg’s trials. Informed consent is a process that protects human beings by requiring doctors to obtain consent from patients before performing a procedure. Participants must fully understand the procedures, beneﬁts, and risks before getting involved. The ethical problems include: 1. Communication barriers between participants (patients) and researchers (healthcare professionals) can create misunderstandings and prevent participants from making fully autonomous decisions.
The reflection process is carried out through many different models of reflection, for example, Gibbs (1988) Model, which is used as a guide to examine the critical incident. In healthcare, consent is a legal and ethical value and must be obtained from the competent patient before any form of procedure by forms of written, verbal or implied. The patient must have full capacity and be fully aware of the procedure and understand if there are any risks involved. If a procedure is given without consent, this can lead to prosecution. The Mental Capacity Act (2005) rules decisions for patients who cannot consent, and therefore the patient would nominate somebody as their “power of attorney”.
These are the medical objectives. But a patient may well have in mind circumstances, objectives, and values which he may reasonably not make known to the doctor but which may lead him to a different decision from that suggested by a purely medical opinion”. The starting point, he said, (which sounds presciently modern), is the right of the patient to make her own decision about whether or not to undergo the proposed treatment. The doctor’s duty is to inform the patient of the material risks. A material risk is one that a reasonably prudent patient in the patient’s position would think significant.
Trust relationship is a kind of interactive process that requires care and concern (Chin, 2001). In this incident, if I told any incorrect information to my patient, she would start to suspect whether I am a medical student or not and start not to believe me. Hence, our relationship would be destroyed. It is important for us to stand from patients’ point of view to think about their thought and ensure the information shared must be accurate before starting any conversation with the
Autonomy Respecting a clients autonomy is key in most counselling approaches. The very ethics of autonomy suggest a client should be granted the right to self-government and have freedom of choice. However the greatest requirement is “respecting the client’s own sense of what will be helpful to them.” (Bond, 2010, p.79; pp.82-83.) However, if the client is a young person of sixteen, have they got the capacity to understand the consequences of receiving a confidential service and the choices relating to the issues under consideration? The counsellor may have the dilemma of deciding what is in this client’s best interest.
Preventing Maternal Deaths. Geneva: WHO; 1989). The classic model of health promotion assumes that Health Care Seeking is based on rational decisions based on knowledge and that health is influenced by behavior, thus behavior change can be achieved through health promotion (connor) Decision-making processes are not always rational; they are complex and influenced by socio-cultural norms, perception and former experiences. To give birth at home for example was seen as a natural process while delivering in a health facility included unfamiliar practices as vaginal exams, lying birth position and delivering with male midwives which opposed cultural practices and beliefs. The perception of medicalization of birth processes has been described as a barrier in attending delivery services before (Gebrehiwot et al.
Here, the patient’s autonomy, human rights, informed refusal and consent come into play (Appelbaum, 2007). Informed consent can be defined as a situation where a patient that is undoubtedly informed wants to participate in the choices and decisions that are being made about his or her health while informed refusal, on the other hand, happens when the risks appertaining to a certain mode of treatment or the treatment itself are rejected based on the risks they pose to the patient’s health and wellbeing in general (Appelbaum, 2007). In such a case, the ethical aspects of deontology and consequentialism are to be explored before the process of decision making
The factors are- Mental conditions- mental capacity Physical conditions – communication abilities Availability, or lack of options Awareness of choices Age Participation Engagement 3.2 It’s a legal requirement that consent is established before any intervention or care giving activity begins. Establishing consent is a one way care workers can show respect to the person and their personal dignity and protect themselves. The process of getting consent is to develop trust between carer and person being supported. The person is more likely to want to do activities they have given permission for consent can be given in many ways. Consent is giving permission to do something.
While TAM2 focused on identifying determinants of perceived usefulness and moderation variables, TAM3 Focus on the interventions that can affect the acceptance and use of IT in an Organization . The Technology acceptance model (TAM2) is frequently accepted not only in the hospital information system acceptance research as mentioned above, but also in the acceptance and use of other information systems. TAM further suggests two beliefs: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are instrumental in explaining the variance in user’s intention. The model is show in Fig.