This is a clear example of the dubious nature of facets of the containment policy, after all, there is a strong argument that the coup was arranged in order to secure American access to resources as opposed to halt the advance of communist ideology. This pattern repeats itself an alarming number of times, another prime example being CIA activities in Guatemala. The newly elected Guatemalan government was overthrown with the support of the CIA, an action that was entirely undemocratic and stood in harsh contrast to the ideals put forward by the West. Not only would these actions result in a myriad of human rights travesties, but the reason for overthrowing this government was hugely influenced by the desire to maintain the influence of US corporations such as United Fruit within the
NSA hides the fact that they are monitoring on US citizens without the warrant as they find some connection between the person monitored and some illegal activity to justify their monitoring. At first, after the 9/11, President George W. Bush started a program of mass monitoring of US communication. He had started it without FISA Court’s knowledge and when the population find out about this Congress had to create and enact the FISA Amendment Act of 2008 and inside was the crucial Section 702 that, by law, validates mass monitoring over the last 7 years. These communication monitoring systems rely on these two statutes: FISA Amendment Act of 2008 (Section 702) and Patriot Act (Section 215). These statutes authorize modern PRISM system to collect metadata and content from the telephone companies.
We stated earlier how the handling of crisis can either positively or negatively affect a candidate’s election or re-election. The killing of Osama Bin Laden had a profound effect on President Obama’s reelection because of the fact it took over ten years to hunt down and kill one of the most wanted men in U.S. history. The impact of the operation was such a success by the presidential team that it ultimately became a key point in President Obama’s career. Things do not always turn out great when it comes to handling certain crisis though. President Kennedy backed a plan that failed miserably which was set in place by the CIA, “for a rebel invasion of Cuba by expatriates hostile to Fidel Castro.” (Janda 334) This ultimately left the United States completely embarrassed and had a tremendous negative effect on President Kennedy’s career and reputation.
Other than internal control, effective external control is of great importance to curb agency problem, particularly with the external auditor’s involvement. In this context, the external auditor would periodically examine the authenticity and objectivity of the company’s financial reports(Boshkoska,2014). Precise financial reporting is critical to ensure the truthfulness of the results and management has not manipulated results for personal gain(Larcker and Tayan, 2011). By employing appropriate accounting policies, the external auditor could help facilitate a position whereby aggressive accounting practices and exaggeration of figures are discouraged(Ojo,2009). Penalties could be imposed on managers and directors who intentionally inflate or manipulate reporting figures.
Introduction To explain the Risk Management Framework outlined by Kaplan & Mike, and to appreciate its relevance in modern banking requires a balanced view, illustrating the alternative and current practice that is in use throughout most of the world. It is the author’s intent to show that existing best practices are not sufficient to identify and determine management risks fully and to explore this theory in depth, this paper is composed of two sections: 1. An explanation of Risk Management with existing Risk Management Frameworks using Basel iii guidelines as an example and, 2. • An explanation of Operational Risk and Market Risk, • An explanation of Kaplan & Mikes Risk Management Framework highlighting how biases are detrimental and counter-productive
According to Paul, UK has developed a degree of skepticism about the effectiveness of UN multidimensional peacekeeping, especially related to questions concerning force structure, command and control, rules of engagement and national caveats. Out of the discussion in Paul’s work, a picture so emerges that UK is in a mode of catching up with the influence exercised by US by striding on the same trail that US has left behind. As for China, Gill and Huang elucidate that how the country has altered its approach from initial skepticism to multidimensional participation in peacekeeping. Citing various normative and practical factors behind these alterations the authors posit that such participation
This is important because researchers still find unexpected results with regards to the influence of national culture on management control system design, finding either weak to no influence between these constructs or results contrary to hypothesized expectations (Chow et al, 1994; Merchant et al., 1995). We do so by reviewing literature that addresses the issue of national culture’s influence on management control system design since the publication of Harrison & McKinnon’s (1999) review up until present day. By doing so we, we aim to see if the points made?WEAKNESSES by Harrison & McKinnon(1999),WHICH WE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES NAMELY FRAMEWORK, METHODOLOGY, WIDER CONTEXT TO WHAT EXTENT THEY ARE PICKED UP BY THE SC COMM AND WHAT PRORGRESS IS BEING MADE IN UNDERSTANDING NC MCS IN RELATION TO THESE WEAKNESES.’ are actually picked up by the scientific community and if progress is being made in understanding the effect of national culture on management control system design. For this the research question for this review has been stated as
It is responsible for the peace between nations by regulating and preventing military conflicts. UNSC was challenged by recent armed conflicts like Iraq war, civil war in Ukraine, national liberation movement in Kosovo and rising terroristic activities like ISIS’s. Due to the responsibility of Security Council for the protection of the UN members, they have tended to be criticized for inability to solve those conflicts. That is the reason why improvement of current UNSC organization and structure, which consists of 5 permanent large states (P5), can be considered as one of the ways to reform UN. Possible problem with the current UNSC system could be paucity of its members, as it was mentioned earlier, permanent members are only five states: United Kingdom, China, the U.S, France and Russia.
The post-cold war period invited many scholars to question, whether there is a dominant theory or hegemon that dictates the structure of the international relations. Lake claimed that, there is no dominant hegemon, international relations encompasses a diversity of theories that mould the international system (1987:127). From a personal stance, realism has had an upper hand than idealist because aid was founded on the realist ideology. This particular fact will be expanded on chapter four of the study, when the researcher delves into World Bank’s origin and purpose. Realism:This theory better explains this section of this study, it will argument that foreign aid is a tool used by Western donors to control poorer countries.
Regardless of the effort to open the truth of the 1965 genocide, it remains difficult to change public opinion regarding anti-communist movement (Zurbuchen 580). The openness on the personal memory of this incident often creates violence and conflict which makes people remains silent for this issue (Zurbuchen 580). This literature is relevant to present the government effort on the reconciliation process and how the politics of memory from the previous regime become an obstacle to change public