In one sense, the word ‘power’ refers to the power of dominant institutions within our society, and how these institutions maintain their dominance through the use of language: media (newspapers, television), advertising, etc. The public institutions of our society have powers of various sorts. One important power is to control the flow of information: what gets into the press, and how it is presented. The public media is the primary means of shaping public opinion. And if one can shape public opinion, one can change the power structures that exist.
Then, it will briefly discuss the reciprocal connection between propaganda and the history of international communication. Propaganda and politics are interrelated. Politics often require the use of propaganda to reinforce its legitimacy and achieve its purpose; similarly, propaganda may affect political situation by shifting public opinion. As an outline of how propaganda can be exploited as a political tool, one might consider the following scenario. When the government wants to achieve its ideal of certain policy, it might use messages that give positive light to this policy.
Propaganda was first seen during World War I and then later its use flourished during the World War II. After the war, more emphasis and attention was given to persuasion. Later, the concept of behavior and behaviorism theory was the topic of research. Attention was also given to the contexts which are historical and cultural in nature and in which propaganda and persuasion were used and different meanings were constructed based on the experiences of the masses. Government leaders in order to mold public opinion on important issues both national and international, often use propaganda.
What is political Culture? Political culture is seen today as a set of attributes and practices held by people that partake in political behavior , it is a reflection of the current government and includes moral judgments, political myths, beliefs and ideas which all constitute to making the society a just, orderly and good one. (Sparknotes.com 2016). Political culture is crucial in a country and government system as they shape the perception and action’s of the entire population as a whole. According to Manheim, political culture is a common set of attributes along with beliefs about common objects, where these beliefs have a relationship to the political system itself.
Political speeches are the crucial activity that links the different parts of society together and allow them to be as united entire. The core of political speech is the ability of the politician to use language and symbols that wake latent tendencies among the masses. Politics is a means for power in order to put certain political, economic and social concepts into practice. Language plays an essential role, for every political action is prepared, attended, influenced and played by language.so language and politics are closely interleaved. The main objective of political speech is to get the corresponding effect through persuasion.
The political culture provides legitimacy through consensus and defines the behaviour of the society at large. For example, behavioral elements which are present when a democratic political culture is established are political tolerance (Diamond, 1999:165), a multi-party system, support for competitive elections, democratic rights, freedom, independent media, the need to accept change, accountability and better standards of living for all. How political culture functions within a political system depends on the extensive, intensive or temporal attitudes of the particular political society in question. An extensive political function means that the political beliefs are more widely shared as is the case in the United States of America, whereas an intensive political function means there is importance and strength on the political beliefs and lastly a temporal political function refers to the strength of party identification or tendency towards issue politics. A public symbol has an important function within shaping political culture once the political society have established a direct relationship between their political system and the object (Manheim, 1982:52).
Furthermore, the aforementioned definitions indicate that the purpose of political discourse is to organize social relations in order to gain the trust of the broad masses and the acquisition of political power. The use of rhetorical figures and linguistic manipulation make the backbone of any political discourse. For example, the conceptual metaphors fit into relevant components of such discourse. As noted by Charteris-Black (2004:1), political success depends on the ability of politicians to arouse emotions through the metaphors in order to influence public
Through political discourse, power relations will be established according to the weight granted to a type of discourse, and to the speaker who is legitimate to speak politics. In this sense, “political discourse” generally refers to politicians only. These power relations are expressed through diverse discursive processes, which maintain the legitimacy of the speaker. They are the result of a relation of interdependence between language and action. An act of language follows a principle of alterity (Charaudeau: 2014, 12).
This study is anchored on the following theories: Mediatization Theory and Propaganda Theory. These theories support that the mediatization of political news is existing in selected Cagayan de Oro print media. Furthermore, these theories can be the bases in explaining the degree of understanding on print media’s way of framing and shaping political news. Mediatization theory implies that the media shapes and frames the procedures and discourse of political communication as well as the society in which that communication happens. According to Harvard (2011), mediatization is the process whereby society increasingly becomes dependent on the media.
The big data initiatives come, then, to sustain this progress. Civil participation through social media is a new reality that the public sector needs to adapt. Fundamental changes occur due to social transformations and technological advances. Data analysis in public administration involves some important changes in the role of governments and their relationship with citizens. These changes can be understood as electronic democracy, which aims to give voice to people not only in elections, but also in the political decision-making processes that have direct implications in society.