Starvation was a common form of resistance onboard the slave ships. Usually, if one slave refused to eat, others would follow. Slave captains punished those who refused to eat severely. Doctor Alexander Falconbridge recalls the ruthless methods of punishment: Upon the negroes refusing to take food, I have seen coals of fire, glowing hot, put on a shovel and placed so near their lips as to scorch and burn them. And this has been accompanied with threats of forcing them to swallow coals if they persisted in refusing to eat…I have also been credibly informed that a certain captain in the slave trade, poured melted lead on such of his negroes as he obstinately refused to eat.
Even though this is bad on its own the Triangular Trade is deemed much worse for multiple reasons. One of the reasons being that you were slaved completely on the way you looked, basically your race. Also, you worked in slavery until death and slavery was passed down to the slave's children. Unlike the slavery in Africa the slavery in the colonies came with specific rules. For example, it is stated "that all servants imported and brought into this country, by sea or land, who were not Christians in their native country, shall be accounted and be slaves, and as such be here bought and sold notwithstanding conversion" (Clark, 42).
Slavery in America, particularly in the Southern region, was heavily depended upon due to the high demand for labor. Historically, slaves were primarily blacks but race did not become an issue until 1650, when Virginia and Maryland claimed that infidel (non Christian) slaves could be enslaved for life. Following this claim, non-whites became a target for slavery. In 1739, a group of rebellious slaves paraded towards Georgia and Florida, and killed several whites at Stono, South Carolina. After these white killings, slave codes were implemented to end rebellion and restrict mobility.
Louisiana in the 1800s was riddled with slavery, and it was necessary to push an image into popularity in order to hide the immorality of the slave owner’s actions. This is explored in Desiree’s Baby by Kate Chopin. In her story, she writes about Armand’s emotions toward Désirée, “Moreover he no longer loved her, because of the unconscious injury she had brought upon his home and his name” (Chopin, 3). As a social elite, the need to hold his status and keep his family in favor of others had Armand ostracizing his love for Désirée. As was expected of the time, plantation owner’s had to broadcast certain opinions about people of color.
He also had to go through being sold a number of times and being boarded on a slave ship. He did not know what was going to happen to him or what these people wanted. He experienced lots of hunger and witnessed illnesses. In the end he was lucky to come out alive. Overall, this is why Americans love the captivity genre.
Slaves were soon sent to the Cape from various parts of the world. Back then, travelling by ship was horribly cramped and unhygienic but it was also the only way to travel across the ocean. The conditions were even worse for slaves who were kept confined and chained. And although the slave traders did not care about the slaves enough to feed them, they had to. The main objective, after all, was to deliver the slaves to the Cape alive and ready to be sold and worked.
Tituba is in her forties. Parris brought her with him from Bardados, where he spent some years as a merchant” (17). The Commercial slavery was the logical extension both of the need to acquire a cheap labor force for burgeoning planter economies, and of the desire to construct Europe’s cultures as ‘civilized’ in contrast to the native, the cannibal and the savage (Ashcroft et al., 1998). The slavery system not only consumed the black physically but also destroyed them spiritually. In The Crucible, Tituba, a black woman and slave, is suffering from loss of ambitious to return home under slavery.
A major consequence of European exploration is the Triangular trade. The Triangular Trade is a time of horrific slave trade between European explorers and Africans. Europeans took the African population into a profitable slave trade organization, and brought them to the Americas. Not only were the slaves brutally beaten and separated from their families, they also were forced to work in harsh conditions and live in poor living conditions which promoted the spread of deadly diseases. Along with the treacherous amount of work they had; Africans received little to no income.
These African slaves would be needed in different plantations in the USA. With about 7 million slaves from Africa during the 18th century alone, the continent was robbed of its strong, able and potential workforce. But that was not all. With slaves being regarded as properties, slave owners had the “right ” to treat their slaves accordingly. Killing or lynching of unwanted slaves, mistreatment, torture, segregation, cultural uprooting, disorientation and dislocation were some of the “natural” faith of the slaves.
Slave narratives provide eloquent arguments against the inhumane practice of slavery and serve as crucial documentations of America’s reprehensible history. Frederick Douglass, a famous black abolitionist, fearlessly published his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass seven years after his escape from bondage. Douglass powerfully details the physical hardships of a male slave and the evils that occurred within slave plantations. Similarly, Harriet Jacobs–once free–published her narrative, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Jacobs tackles the emotional tribulations inflicted upon herself and other women of color by their white masters.
Overall, the black slaves were treated poorly and bundled aboard the slave ships. A slave said, “In such a place the sense of misery and suffocation is so great, that the blacks are driven to frenzy.” Even though whites and blacks were slaves, they were treated unequally and unfairly. Eventually, racism developed in society and white people was considered superior over the blacks. The blacks and whites were separated due to their skin color. The black slaves endeavored to escape from their owners to search for their family.
In our minds, however, we do not all live in the same America (Brown & Holt, 2000). The experience of traveling the Middle Passage may not been passed down in family stories but the history is horrific time. The Middle Passage is the transatlantic voyage slaves faced coming to America after being captured and forced to leave their homes. The behavior is today may seem barbaric for the isolation and cruel yet the ones who survived weeks on the ships came to America with strength and known as survivors after weeks on board of ships. The enslaved Africans were chained together by the hand and the foot, and packed into the smallest places where there was barely enough room to lie on one’s side.
But, if we think of e.g. how Blacks were transported from Africa in the 1700s, tightly packed in slave ships so that they couldn’t even change their pose, having to endure this for weeks, massively dying before even reaching America, it is possible to say that the Reconstruction wasn’t “the darkest period of American history”. If I had had the chance to influence the Reconstruction (while retaining the today’s mind of mine), I would have supported the Radicals in their attempts to establish the racial equality. What I would have done differently is that I would also have tried to give more rights to women. There were many women’s organizations (Foner 578-579), so I wouldn’t be alone in my efforts.
The Atlantic Slave Trade was the movement of Africans to the Americas as slaves. The slave trader, Captain Thomas Phillip in document B he says “ We endure twice the misery; and yet by their mortality our voyages are ruined.”(Phillips). He is saying that they are dying and that it isn’t a good thing, but for a different reason. He also says “But what the smallpox spared, the flux swept off, to our great regret, after all our pains and care to give [the slaves] their messes,... keeping their lodgings as clean and sweet as possible…”(Phillips). That is saying the conditions that they live in and how they “try” to keep it clean.
Slave owners had many punishments for slave it rarely depends how serious the crimes were. Some of the punishments were being shackled, being chained to the ground, being whipped, and being hung to die. Plantation owners often made the other slaves watch it because it will prevent them from slacking at work or trying to run away. All of this is related to Solomon during his 12 years of hardship work. The things that Northup did was disobeying a white man’s order and then putting his hands on him.