In Plato’s mind, art was the impersonation of nature. Yet in the nineteenth century, photography assumed control over that capacity, and in the twentieth century, abstract art toppled the entire thought that art was about the portrayal, in another word, representation. Moreover, in spite of the fact that art implied ability and skill at an opportune time, the conceptual artist had brought their thoughts to a higher level of execution. Hence, what is art? Art has been identified by various philosophers and critics in different ways.
Pollock 's greatness lies in developing one of the most essential abstract styles in the history of modern art, separating line from color, redefining the categories of drawing and painting, and finding new means to describe pictorial space. A painting 's form is composed of its basic elements: color, line, composition, arrangement and texture. These elements constitute the fundamental language used by formalist art critics to examine and analyze works
Voltaire (1694-1778) was a French writer, historian and prominent philosophical figure whose ideas and writings left a mark on history. During his time, Voltaire’s theories sparked great controversy. In Voltaire’s best-known work Candide, he criticizes philosophical, religious, political, and social systems of the time which today we would unknowingly turn a blind eye to. Knowing the historical context of Candide, the reader’s understanding and interpretation of characters and ideas in it enhance the work by connecting them to the voices of history present in Voltaire’s time. For starters, the reader must be aware of historical events that had occurred and were occurring to understand the historical context of Candide.
Many things found today in postmodernism can be traced back, transformed of course, in the main modern flows; dadaism, futurism, surrealism. One of the main features of postmodernism is, that it exposed an experiment in different artistic fields as a result of denying conformism, which is introduced from avant-garde theory onwards. Postmodernism, therefore, acts as part of what modernism stood for except that postmodernism at the same time performs as its criticism. The same happens with postmodern theatre and modern theatre. The line is blurred as these two periods are intertwining.
Large portions of the craftsmanship painted all through history were painted under the influence of an artistic style whether it was neoclassical, romantic or realist. All the styles were critiques to one another. These artistic styles were opposed to each other and were really different from one another. This paper will compare and contrast between romanticism and neoclassicism. One painting from each style will be chosen for proving the point.
(1979). Jefferson and the Scottish Enlightenment: A Critique of Garry Wills 's Inventing America: Jefferson 's Declaration of Independence. The William and Mary Quarterly, 36(4), 503-523. Hamowy gives an astounding account on “Critique of Gary Willis: Jefferson’s of Independence” gives broad details on inventing America, Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence” and he expresses Gary Willis background and expertise on studying this subject matter. Hamowy articulate tells of some of the pitfalls Thomas Jefferson experienced before writing some powerful and needful historical document that mark a new era in America and how he was trained by William Small, a historian researcher and instructor who taught on moral philosophy and rhetoric.
The characters in such a novel are mostly perplexing and puzzling, with dim issues in their past. The objective of Romanticism as a development was to encounter the world with passionate power and to rise above the common in regular day to day existence. One attribute for a Romantic novel is a locale of confinement, greatness, and maybe fear. This perspective of nature and environment in the Romantic Movement was associated with the analytical idea of The Sublime. Many eighteenth century scholars including Edmund Burke, expounded on an ordeal of nature that was so overpowering as to be inexpressible.
While the allocated course reading on Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics explored the fundamental nature of the linguistic sign and the inherent arbitrary relations between its elements, much is left unexplained. As I was reading through Saussure’s work, several questions cropped up: What was the background context that prompted Saussure to herald a new and revolutionary era of structural linguistics? How was the study of linguistic like before Saussure ushered a new approach? Were Saussure’s key methods undisputed among reputed linguists? How relevant are the points in Course in General Linguistics in contemporary theory?
The first level would be read superficially since interpretation is only done at surface level. The second level is achieved only after recognition of symbolism and then the deduction of the underlying meaning. The foundation of rhetorical criticism is to understand a writer’s intention; to recognize how they use stylistic devices and structure their work to create an interaction between reader and symbolism. Therefore, it would be most interesting to use rhetorical criticism to approach one of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s that criticizes the Puritan Society: “The Minister’s Black Veil (1837)”. This piece of literature is highly symbolic to not only heighten the dramatic effect, but to also
M.H Abrams an American literary critic is popularly known for his works on Romanticism. One of his ground breaking works is The Mirror and the Lamp: romantic theory and critical traditions where he highlighted the contrast in understanding literature in the pre-romantic period and in the post romantic period. Literature until 18th century was classified as a mere reflection of the external activities and object and with the advent of Romanticism, the poet gained importance. The poet was seen as the ‘lamp’ or the illuminator who with his works illuminated the work rather then mere imitation of the external objects. In modern criticism, the interpretation of a text centered around the artist which can be seen in the works of I.A Richards.