The Motivational Theory: The Concept Of Motivation

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The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Basically motivation is a force which is acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of any goal. Motivation theory is thus concerned with the processes that explain why and how human behavior is activated. Motivation is an intrinsic phenomenon that is affected by four factors: Situation (environment and external stimulus), temperament (internal state), goal (purpose of behavior and attitude) and tool (to reach the target). People are motivated for achieving to the goals, necessities and instincts. Academic achievement has a special importance for students. With this motivation, they are motivated enough for successful completion…show more content…
Plato has a firm belief on a hierarchy organization, such as the emotional and the rational component. Aristotle, for more than twenty years continued to affirm the hierarchy spiritual. The ancient Greeks presumed three component, the body 's desires, pleasures and pains in a hierarchical arrangement for the first theoretical justification of the motivational activities. (Pakdel; 2013) In the modern era after the Renaissance, Rene Descartes distinguished between two aspects of motivation: active and inactive. He believed that body is inactive factor of motivation, while will is active factor of motivation. Body has a physical and mechanical nature while the mind has mental, moral and intellectual nature which has purposefulness will. Therefore will always is force of motivation and Descartes devoted motivation exclusively to the will of man. He provided the first great theory of motivation for philosophers. Early explanations of motivation focused on instincts. In the late nineteenth and early…show more content…
It is also called as “intrinsic motivation”. This theory regard that motivation is the product of internal drives that compel an individual to act or move toward the satisfaction of their needs. Major content theories of motivation are Maslow 's hierarchy of needs, Alderfer 's ERG theory, Herzberg 's motivator-hygiene theory, and McClelland 's learned needs or three-need theory. Process (or cognitive) theories of motivation focus on conscious human decision. The process theories are concerned with determining how individual behavior is energized, directed, and maintained in the specifically willed and self-directed human cognitive processes. Process theories of motivation are based on early cognitive theories, which posit that behavior is the result of conscious decision-making processes, which is also known as “extrinsic motivation”. The major process theories of motivation are expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory. The basic principle of motivation is based on ability. According to it, any task cannot be done successfully until and unless the person, who has chosen it, has an enough ability to perform it well and he should be eager to
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