According to expectancy-value theory, behavior is a function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goal toward which one is working. Such an approach predicts that, when more than one behavior is possible, the behavior chosen will be the one with the largest combination of expected success and value. Expectancy-value theories hold that people are goal-oriented beings. The behaviors they perform in response to their beliefs and values are undertaken to achieve some end. However, although expectancy- value theory can be used to explain central concepts in uses and gratifications research, there are other factors that influence the process.
INTRODUCTION Motivation is the process that arouses, directs and maintains behavior. It involves two sub-categories and that is arousal and direction. Motivation can also be defined as the set of factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually towards a goal. Arousal is what gets a person motivated or excited to get something done. The second category would be direction.
Reinforcement theory is the process of determining behavior by controlling the consequences of the behavior. In reinforcement system, a combination of rewards and/or punishments is used to reinforce desired behavior or extinguish unwanted behavior. Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that personality’s behaviour is a function of its consequences. Reinforcement theory of motivation directs the internal state of individual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored by Skinner.
According to Maslow, the motivation in life is based on a hierarchy of needs. Humans are motivated and driven by the need to fulfill and satisfy different levels of needs, to live a fulfilling satisfying life. Which is essentially is related to their happiness in life. Individuals have to first to go through and satisfy different stages of needs before progressing to the next need that drives the individual 's motivation. The stages to fulfill or satisfy starts from the most basic fundamental need for human survival.
The above definition defines that a motivation starts with recognition of a desire, followed by mental desire to achieve the desire, thus following by physical actions to obtain the desire. The motivation level of individual or team apply in their work task can affect all aspects of organizational performance. In the Frederick Herzberg’s well known Two-Factor Theory has introduced unique factors of employees’ motivations. The employees’ theory has separated the motivation into two category which is extrinsic and intrinsic
Motivation and commitment are both forces which influence behaviour. In this integrative model, Meyer and Becker put commitment as part of motivation process which will influence workplace behaviour. To create this model, Meyer and Becker used Locke’s (1997) model and modified it to treat motivation as a multidimensional and create distinction between discretionary and nondiscretionary behaviour. According to Deci & Ryan’s (2000) self-determination theory, motivation is a self-initiated or externally stimulated intention to act. The integrative model modifies Locke’s model (1997) by introducing commitment to social foci, goal regulation, goal commitment and bases for commitment.
The four main theories that emerge from these arguments are the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET), Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Over Justification Effect (OJE) and Goal Setting Theory (GST). CET states that an individual’s intrinsic motivational levels are affected when recipients of rewards believe that awards provide positive information about competency and effort (Ledford 2013). CET is similar to SDT which emphasizes three basic needs for an individuals motivation; competence, autonomy and relatedness (Pintrich 2003). It identifies different types of extrinsic motivational styles that include external; controlled by others or rewards and introjection; when the individual has opportunity to internalize values of the task. There is also the extrinsic motivational style of identification, where individuals work towards self-constructed goals and are internally motivated.
What is it that motivates you? Defining Motivation 1. Motivation is an internal process that guides, activates and maintains behaviour overtime (Baron, 1998) 2. Motivation explains why people behave the way they do, motivated behaviours are energized, directed and sustained (Santrock, 2001, p.394) Defining Motivation 3. Motivation is the influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behaviour (Slavin, 2000, p.327) 4.
The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), developed together by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen suggests that an individual’s actions and decisions are done with the intention or reason that functions and cooperates with his/her subjective norm and attitude. The TRA predicts behavioral intent based on two factors: our attitudes and norms. Whenever our attitude lead us to do one thing but the relevant norms suggest we do something else (Azjen & Fizben, 1980). An intention is a plan, likelihood or determination to attain or accomplish something. It is a cognitive representation of a person’s readiness to perform a certain or given behaviour.
As a researcher, I have noted with concern that it’s important for employees to balance between intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation as they deal with employees and that one should first find out what particular motivation practice will motivate a given employee as advanced by Maslow, A. (1943) in the Hierarchy of needs