These receive blood directly from the heart. These are the Aorta and the pulmonary artery. The Aorta transports blood from the heart to the rest of the body tissues, whereas the pulmonary artery transports blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. The arteries need to be elastic because the diameter is small compared to the actual size of the artery. When the heart contracts and pours blood in these arteries, the walls need to stretch to house the blood.
The Metatarsophalangeal Joints are Condyloid Joints which allow various planes of movement. Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction and Circumduction are the various movements that the Metatarsophalangeal Joint can perform. The structure of a Condyloid joint consists of an oval end of a bone that fits into a
, also all epithelial cells are supported by a basement membrane underneath it. - There are 2 different classifications of epithelial tissue, the types of cell (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) and the number of layers (simple- one layer, stratified- two or more layers, pseudo stratified- one layer but it looks like there’s more than one), but there is also one special type of epithelial tissue which is called transitional epithelial tissue. • Connective Tissue - The connective tissue supports and binds other tissues together (such as muscle to bones and etc.). There are less cells in connective tissues compared to epithe¬lial tissues because there are spaces between the cells called the “matrix” which are made out of ground substance (water) + fibers. There are two types of connective tissue, the 1st is loose connective tissue an example of which is blood, the 2nd is called dense connective, bones and ligaments are examples of
Thus, the pericardial cavity allows the heart movement to be flexible. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart totally except at the inlet and outlet of the cardiac vessels, where they form two significant tubes. One of the tubes serves as an interconnection to the inferior and superior vena cava and the pulmonary veins, whereas the other connects the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Blood Supply and Innervation of the
The contraction of the ventricles opens the semilunar valves, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta. The ventricles now relax (diastole) and any backflow of blood causes the semilunar valves to close causing the second sound of the heartbeat. Cardiac muscle never tires. The heart has its own blood supply from the coronary arteries which come from the aorta and the coronary veins which empty into the vena cava. A blockage in the coronary artery causes a heart attack.
The cell’s secretion help on lubricating the heart, preventing heart friction with its surrounding organs during contractions, holding the heart inside the chest and maintaining a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full of blood. 1.1.2 Structure of the heart wall The heart wall is composed of 3 layers (figure 3): • Epicardium: As mentioned before, the epicardium is at the same time the outermost layer of the heart wall and the inner wall of the pericardium (visceral layer). It protects and lubricates the
The knee joint is one of the strongest and most important joints in the human body. It allows the lower leg to move relative to the thigh while supporting the body’s weight (Taylor, n.d.) as knee joint is one of the major weights bearing joint in the body. Knee joint plays an important role in our daily lives such as walking, running, sitting and standing. It allows physiological movement such as flexion and extension. The knee joint is also known as tibiofemoral joint.
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column. The spinal cord and nerve roots are preserved by the vertebral body, supports the body and responsible for carrying weight. The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing.
The PNS contains somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the function of internal organs like your heart, stomach, cardiac muscle, and your glands. The autonomic nervous system has an effect on the organs, muscles, and glands are all done voluntary. The autonomic nervous system can change the body temperture, send extra blood to a particular area, slow your heartbeat, and pull the stomach secretion. The somatic nervous system is made up of sensory organs and nerves that connects to the skin, also that connects to all the skeleton muscles.
The basic unit is the muscle fiber with many nuclei. These muscle fibers are striated (having transverse streaks) and each acts independently of neighboring muscle fibers. Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle, found in the walls of the hollow internal organs such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, bladder, and uterus, is under control of the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscle cannot be controlled consciously and thus acts involuntarily. The non-striated (smooth) muscle cell is spindle-shaped and has one central nucleus.
It is also noted that where two bones meet is called a joint. There are many types of joints that allow for the body to move in different ways, notable ones: hinge, ball and socket, pivot and some in the skull. The materials used was a virtual skeleton, a cursor, a box, bones, and brains.
(Steve Parker 2007) The hearts wall are made of a special muscle known as cardiac muscle this type of muscle is only found in the heart because of its uniqueness, the muscle needs the ability to constantly contract without becoming weak or tired and to maintain this the muscle needs a continuous supply of oxygenated blood from the coronary arteries. The left and right side of the heart is divided by the septum, the septum also does not allow oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to mix and also helps support the
The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement). UPPER LIMBS (consists of upper arm, forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers that all work together for movement and function of your arm). PELVIC GIRDLE (two large hip bones that provide support for the attachment