After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished, unleashing a vast amount of Blacks into American society. Following the Civil War was the Reconstruction Era which empowered Blacks. For example, the 14th and 15th amendment were passed which made blacks citizens with the same rights as any other slavery and gave blacks voting rights. Southern blacks begin taking control over the states as voting privilege allowed blacks to be voted into local government position and even a senator position in the U.S Congress. However, with the end of Reconstruction by the Compromise of 1877 which removed all federal troops in the south in exchange for Hayes withdrawal from the presidential election, Southern states made new constitutions to disenfranchised the blacks.
At the start is was not the aim to a abolish slavery but join America as a nation, abolition came later. This was because of the military necessity, growing anti-slavery sentiment in the north and the self-emancipation of many African Americans. This is where they fled enslavement as Union troops and went through the South, five days after the bloody Union victory at Antietam in September 1862, Lincoln made it official that “slaves within any state, or designated part of a state in rebellion shall be then and thenceforward, and forever free” (Networks, 2015). Nearly 100 years after this the African Americans in the Southern states still inhabited as starkly unequal world of disenfranchisement, segregation and various forms of oppression, this included violence because of the colour of their skin. The “Jim Crow” this law barred African Americans from bathroom, classrooms, theatres and train cars.
Can be separate but equal? The supreme court thought so in 1892.Just before The Supreme court decided this the 14th amendment was passed. It stated that “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”(The United States Constitution) were considered citizens. In the next coming years tension grew as African Americans soon found out that their separate stations were not equal to the white stations. Homer Plessy was the first to stand up and voice his opinion.The Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case challenged segregation laws.
After the Civil War, between the years, 1865 through 1870 the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments was adopted by the United States. The United States abolished slavery, providing equal protection for freed slaves, and prohibited discrimination of colored voters. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments granted former slaves the freedom to pursue happiness, but in 1868, the “separate but equal” doctrine kept these amendments from bearing fruit. For nearly a century the “separate but equal” doctrine promoted segregation, and the Supreme Court it was constitutional to keep blacks and whites separate as long as they had equal rights to education, public transportation, and restrooms. However, the definition of equality in the south was very vague and ambiguous.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) The amendments were put into place to protect the rights and civil liberties of all American citizens from the federal government. However, prior to the fourteenth amendment, there was no certainty with the constitution. The constitution did not state in a clear enough way who was protected under it and exactly what rights you had as an American Citizen. The 14th amendment was in response to the just passed thirteenth amendment, which ended slavery in all of the southern states. This document drastically changed the perception of the citizens, showing that it protected the civil rights of whites and blacks.
He began to push for the federal government to outlaw lynching, he also supported labor laws, women’s right to vote, and interracial marriage. The Souls of Black Folks, is an essay that examines African American’s quest for identity, or in the words of DuBois “longing to attain self-conscious manhood”. Although the Civil War amendments granted African Americans freedom, citizenship, and the right to vote, the emancipated people were
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution assured that people born in The United States are American citizens and individual states cannot deprive them of their constitutional rights. It also assured that all citizens in all states enjoyed not only rights on the federal level, but on the state level, too. In 1866, when the 14th Amendment was ratified, the U.S. was in the midst of Reconstruction, particularly in the south. Because all African-American people freed from slavery, they needed land, housing, jobs, etc, and the Republicans wanted equality to be protected by the Constitution itself, which is where the 14th Amendment came into play. People were unhappy with the fact that President Johnson vetoed the proposal of the 14th Amendment at first.
Segregation has plagued the U.S. since before the Civil War. Racism between blacks and whites has ended in horrible incidents to blacks done by whites. Racial segregation is primarily done in the south. The government seems to do nothing to stop it. The racial segregation has has to stop, the Declaration of Independence says, “all men are created equal” but in the south that does not apply.
Abraham Lincoln died for civil rights when slavery was abolished when he signed the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865, but still African-Americans were being discriminated and segregated form the whites. True equality was not shown until The Civil Rights Act of 1965 that desegregated schools, restaurants, and other locations in America was signed gave African-Americans a chance at true freedom and equality which is what America is supposed to mean. For 100 years the battle for civil rights was fought and came true, it took a nation to be divide to go to war with each other. It also started a huge movement in America in the 1960s that revolutionized a country and changed it forever. King believed in this change and was able to lead a movement and succeed with it.
Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act 1964, a law that Kennedy proposed before he died, that would ban segregation and try put an end to discrimination in the South. This protected civil rights for all as it outlawed segregation in public places, such as in schools, and it prohibited racial discrimination in any federal assisted undertaking. To ensure desegregation, organisations such as the Community Relations Service and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission were formed. Support for Johnson increased from African Americans. (He managed to claim Presidency in 1963-1964 with an overwhelming victory against Senator Barry Goldwater, whose support came mainly from white people in the South.)
The ‘separate but equal’ doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson has no place in the field of public education.” The court decision was a pivotal decision in the field of civil rights. It created a monumental change in the American nation. Furthermore, it broke all the traditional views about segregation by supporting equality among Americans. The bottom line, this landmark case made the previous doctrine ‘separate but equal’ unconstitutional. Additionally, the decision was a great chance for American society to come to terms with its dark past in the field of segregation and slavery.
Even after years of deadly war, division still existed. In the year 1954 “The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the “separate but equal” doctrine that formed the basis for state-sanctioned discrimination, drawing national and international attention to African Americans’ plight (history.com).” Throughout the years following “ ...civil rights activists used nonviolent protest and civil disobedience to bring about change, and the federal government made legislative headway with initiatives such as the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (history.com).” Eventually segregation was defeated and everyone was equal. Division was coming to an end and people started to be nice with each other. There was not segregation in schools and white people and black people were treated equally. They lived up to the saying “All men are created equal” and there was peace.
After the Civil War, the 13th Amendment formally abolished slavery was ratified in 1865. In addition, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 (en) which provides a number of civil rights to all people born in the States -United. Despite this, the emergence of "black codes" that punish acts of submission against Blacks, continue to prohibit African Americans civil rights due to them. The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 to support this effort and the Civil Rights Act of 1875 is proclaimed in stride. The latter was abolished by a decision which undermines the federal power to thwart private racial discrimination.
On July 9, 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified to the Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment was created to grant citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included the freeing of former slaves after the Civil War in 1865. It gave the former slaves their natural rights as citizens to the United States after the Dred Scott case, where they declared that black slaves were not people. Moreover, in Southern states the majority of them rejected this because they still wanted to keep their slaves, but later was required to be ratified by the three-fourths of the states. This is also known as the “Reconstruction Amendment,” meaning to forbid any states to deny any person of “life, liberty, or property without
He led African Americans to freedom of voting and their opinion being recognized. According to the book, Constitutional Amendments, “The Act focused on 7 southern states (Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia) and outlawed restrictive voting requirements that denied the right of a U. S. citizen to vote because of race, color, or membership” (Pendergast et al. 313). Therefore the African Americans now had the freedom to vote and have a say in government decisions. Many organizations have tried to help form more freedom for African Americans by creating protests.