OF GOD IN CHRISTIANITY The monotheistic faiths conceive God as Supreme Being and central figure of faith (Honderich 137). Theologians ascribe qualities like omniscience (all-wise), omnipresence (all-pervasive), omnipotence (all-powerful) and immortality. Additionally, God has been attributed with characteristics like omnibenevolence (infinitely good) and all-loving. God envisioned by Christian faith is the eternal entity and the creator of the universe and sustains it. Christians believe the God of Christianity to be transcendent (ultimate and independent) and immanent (involved in world) (Erickson 87).
The essay will then conclude by linking these areas to the question of whether Rousseau’s Du Contrat Social signals the advent of modern democratic republicanism or a could serve to suppress individual human freedom and the importance of remembering the context of when Rousseau’s Du Contrat Social was written. Freedom according to Rousseau Although Rousseau believes that men did indeed have natural human freedom, he does not believe that men can simply regain their ‘natural freedom’. The reason for this remains unexplained in ‘Du Contrat Social’. However Rousseau believes they must “voluntarily agree to the creation of a social order, which though not ‘natural’ is, or has become, indispensable” (Keens- Soper, 1988, p.175). Rousseau’s aim in creating Du Contrat Social was not to allow men to regain their natural freedom, his aim was to “ find a form of association which will defend the person and
14: 6). This shows how the Church received the truth about human life as a gift God the Father The true meaning of life, therefore, is a person: Jesus Christ. The ultimate answers to man's questions about pain, suffering of the innocent, and death are found in Christ's Passion, Death and Resurrection (n. 12). The truth communicated by Christ is the absolutely valid source of the meaning of human life (n. 12). All human creatures, not just philosophers, have the right to receive the truth about their existence and destiny (n. 38).
Stoicism gave the entire traditional definition of natural law. The Stoics contended that the universe is represented by reason, or rational standard; they further contended that all people have reason inside them and in this manner they can know and comply with its law. Since people have a free will, they won 't really comply with the law; but even if they act as per their reason, they will be "following nature". Christian thinkers promptly adapted Stoic natural law theory, recognizing natural law with the law of God. For Thomas Aquinas, normal law is that part of the endless law of God ("the reason of divine intelligence") which is comprehensible by people by means of their forces of reason.
Edward Stillingfleet strongly criticized John Locke and attacked him in three ways. The first one was based on Locke’s notion of reason, secondly he claimed that the certainty of the perception of agreement or disagreement between ideas is undermined by the fact that many of our most important ideas are not clear and distinct, and lastly, he argued that Locke derived the very principles of reason upon which the certainty of deduction is based. Rousseau brought into existence, the term ‘General will and this will protect the common good of people and the rights of people. It simply means the general agreements among people. John Finnis adopted Aristotle’s ideas and argued with the concept of Hobbes in relation to the definition of natural
b.2.1. The Divine Intellect God causes things by His knowledge. Having this question answered by St. Thomas, the argument of which leaned towards the discussion of the divine causality through His knowledge. In the previous discussion, it is concluded that the esse of God is His own act of understanding. With this, it can be said that “He must understand Himself perfectly, which includes a perfect understanding of all that He causes, which is everything.” It is understood, then, that inasmuch as we understand that the perfection of understanding is in God, the understanding of His creatures can be also attributed to Him perfectly.
This trans-valuation of values disposes man for the great task of taking the place of God as the legislator of moral laws, and by rejecting the slave morality, man catapulted into the realm of a superman, who is beyond good and evil. Man’s independence from the belief in God and slave morality confers on him the role of a creator of his own values. Thus the man who hold on to the master morality is the ideal man or superman says Nietzsche. It is a morality of yes-to-life, a life affirming
In ‘A Clockwork Orange’, if you were to apply psychoanalytic lens to the text is becomes clear that Burgess has constructed Alex as a malignant narcissist, who he utilizes as a tool to project his concern that society is shaping the human race into becoming like Alex. Burgess in his novel describes a society which is at the beginnings of totalitarianism. Alex is an interesting protagonist as he doesn’t seek to revolutionize his society. By committing horrendous crimes, it enables him to feel emotion in an ordered world. Both Heller and Kiraly argued that “..._A Clockwork Orange_portrays a detached, uncaring society where ultraviolence is the only method of saying, ‘I am alive’”.
Legal positivism greatly emphasises the differences and separation of law and morality. Legal professionals who follow this theory believe that law is man made by the legislature to stop a certain action. They hold that the law should be held superior and should be obeyed without consideration of morality. Austin, as a positivist, sought to provide us with a clearer idea of what the law actually is instead of what morality notions it to be. Austin uses utilitarianism to form the basis of his theory which in turn lay down the foundation of modern positive law.
If morals are based on emotions then people who lack strong emotions must be blind to morality. This was explained by James Blair (cited in Prinz, 2011), with his psychological researches on psychopaths. Psychopaths see moral rules as mere orders because they are emotionally blind and they lack emotional attitudes. While cultures may differ on what behaviors are good or bad, the general moral emotion of feeling good or bad about behavior is universal. Bio-cultural Evolutionary model explains moral sense as a moral feeling or emotion generated by actions.