Henzell-Thomas (2004) identified the major problems which were perpetuated by Islamophobia and one of them being “the misleading association of Islam with specific cultural identities and practices, especially Asian and African. Sajid (2005) further reiterates this by “Islamophobia is a new form of racism whereby Muslims, an ethno-religious group, not a race, are nevertheless, constructed as a race.” The media in western hemispheres have been responsible for the misunderstanding of the Islamic faith as it is constantly depicted as a religion that condones acts of violence, terror and political unrest. It encourages the thoughts of individuals that Western culture is superior to that of Islamic culture. The media also fails to differentiate between Islamic beliefs and Islamic extremists, who are two different things which also facilitates misconceptions about their beliefs. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva asserts that the bigger picture is
In his book, the professor Van Dijk discusses the appearance of racism in the press. One of Van Dijk’s main points is that a racist discourse can be identified through the location and choice of the words (1991, p.53). Consequently, Van Dijk claims that the relation between words can demonstrate the racist implications in the text (1991, p.58). 2.2.3. “Racist Discourse”.
Being classified as the “other’ is an idea that was first coined by Edward Said in his text titled Orientalism. In this text Said critiques the cultural representations of Orientalism written and performed by a western, biased view of the eastern hemisphere. In western writing and media, the people who hail from the eastern hemisphere are seen and depicted as the ‘other’. They are viewed as uncivilized, lesser, terrorists and opposites of everything on the western side of the world. They are judged based on race and other factors and displayed in a negative way that greatly impacts how they are viewed and treated in other countries.
Looking at the instances of crimes against women in Pakistan some of the extrinsic factors that result in violence is the fact that Pakistan is a patriarchal society where male dominance is repeatedly mentioned as a cause for the domestic violence (Heise, 1998).It is this very violence that is being analyzed in order to define the relation between sexism and bigotry. The reason for choosing bigotry and how it may or may not be related to sexism is because how they are so similar in their definations.Where a sexist is someone who clearly despises an entire gender race and a bigot is someone who exhibits intolerance towards a group with ideologies and opinions different from oneself, these very definitions lead me into finding the non-existent relationship between the both of them. For someone discriminating the entire female population, is there not a possibility for that very person to tag his decisions as the best and deject those (especially coming from women) that say
These three theories will be further discussed in detail in this movie analysis. Firstly, racism is portrayed strongly in the movie. Racism occurs due to stereotypes related to racial issues. Stereotyping is the process “involving the expression of an exaggerated belief about a group that serves to qualify or justify the conduct towards that group of those who hold and express that belief” (Long, Wall 107). Stereotypes can be positive or
8.3 Major key determinant of inequality existed all around the world Sustainable development and empowerment of women can be ensured through education and patriarchal psychology, which is the barrier in the way of enhancing their economic, social and political status. Some factors such as traditional caste based attitude, gender insensitivity, illiteracy, lack of training of the marginalized women at the grassroots and the prevailing patriarchal tendency and gender segregation etc. have contributed towards the course of marginalization of women who belong to the deprived sections of the society. There are various most important key determinants of inequality existed in the society between man and woman, thereby women are still lacking and far behind from man in each field especially in the political arena. These issues and challenges depict in the chart mentioned below.
Viewers perceive the stereotype and ideal contents of races and genders through the media because it is an important element which affects the socializing, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of its people (Gunter 21, n.d.). As the media has become the main source of information, audiences in the different part of the world perceive different meanings of gender roles and tend to have more stereotypical ideas about it. It is quite clear that
It reduces potential competition from men who are the ‘superior’ sex in other markets and from surrounding areas. 2. It downplays the male contributions in the society. This Demonstrates that the feminine gender have the upper hand in the community. With this society, as any other, there are subgroups of people who cleave to different beliefs, and have conflicting values and goals to others.
against the traditional position of women in Indian society and they try to find their own way on their own choice. His plays mock the unjust values of the patriarchal society which does not care for the feelings of a woman and considers her a subhuman who exists only to serve him with absolute loyalty. Call it Hayavadana, Nagamandala or The Fire and Rain --- these elements are all there to serve the purpose of the dramatist. Exploitation and oppression of women have become a recognized culture of male chauvinism. So, his plays represent the junction point at which women are characterized as enlightened and emancipated with the power of resistance who struggle to overcome the male dominance.
It is important to understand the attitudes and behaviours prevailing in respect of women to understand the mind of the offender of a crime against women. The treatment of women in the society is vitally influenced and determined by how women are thought of by the society at large which in turn depends a great deal upon the reaffirmation of gender stereotypes and their overt and covert recognition by the mass media.The influence of media is paramount in shaping attitudes and behaviours generally and in particular towards women and their role in the society. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of media on various behaviours including violence and aggression , social stereotyping and prosocial behaviours. A stereotyped portrayal of women in the media is likely to render it as the accepted role or position of a woman in real life as the cultivation theory posits that heavy exposure to mass media creates and cultivates attitudes more consistent with a media directed version of reality itself .The circle goes full as media alters the idea of reality so much so as to end up altering the reality itself. It has been argued that the people involved with the media do not “bear the responsibility of the morality of a nation”.