Competition Between Species

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Species interact with each other in the natural world. Two ways species interact are through competition or cooperation. In this study, the average needle length of Red Pines, Pinus resinosa, was compared to the distance to the nearest tree to see if the trees were interacting via competing or cooperation. It was found that the average needle length was longer when distance between the nearest tree was the closest.
In nature, competition is common. Competition occurs between two species or the same species that require the same resource(s) to live. These resources are not overly abundant so that there are plenty to go around, therefore, there are a limiting amount of these resources. The competitors need these resources to survive, grow, and reproduce. Consequently, competition has a negative effect on both competitors because neither has the opportunity to get what they would if they were alone (Ricklefs & Relyea, 2013). There are two main type of competition: intraspecific and interspecific. Intraspecific is competition between the same species while interspecific is between different
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This shape reduces the area in which water can evaporate from the leaf. The needle is also covered in a waxy cuticle that further prevents water from escaping from the leaf. Needles of pine trees are not shed every year or at the same time (Brooker, Widmaier, Graham, & Stiling, 2014). The needles of the Red Pine last between 2-4 years (Sibley, 2009). Keeping leaves all winter gives the tree a head start starting photosynthesis in the spring compared to trees that get rid of their leaves (Brooker et al., 2014). Although the Red Pine has straight, yellow green needles 5 inches in length, leaves can be very variable in size between trees and, also, within the individual. Therefore, one must observe many leaves on an individual and take the average length to get an idea of the length of the needles (Sibley,
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