The Negative Effects Of Pesticides In The Environment

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1. Introduction 1.1 Pesticides in the environment Nowadays, pesticides are widely used in the agriculture sector to enhance crop productivity, minimize pest infestations and manage weeds. According to The United States Environmental Protection Agency, more than half a million tons of pesticide products were used each year in the United States and above three hundred thousands tons of active substances were sold each year in the European Union1. The application of pesticides in the agricultural sector cause some critical environmental issues due to the volatilization, and leaching of pesticides into the surroundings2,3. One of the negative effects of pesticides on the environment is the potential contamination of surface water and groundwater with pesticides, which can be a problem for drinking water supplies. According to Thomson et al (2005), the concentration of pesticides in groundwater must not exceed the EU-drinking water limit of 0.1 µg/l. Above 0.1 µg/l pesticides must be removed because it might create several negative health risks in the long-term exposure. In the environment, the conversion of contaminants such as pesticides involve non biological and biological processes which result in the transformation of pesticides to innocuous compound4. Physical, chemical and photochemical processes belongs to non-biological processes, while biological process are related with activity of microorganisms. The transformation is influenced by environmental condition, the

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