The input nuclei receives signals and the output signal sends the signals to the part of the brain that processses the signals. They are responsible for voluntary movement and cognitive functions. In addition, the basal ganglia are associated with processing emotions. The basal ganglia ensure that involuntary movements are avoided and enable voluntary movements. Through these, the motor cortex is able process information concerned with
The nervous system consists of two divisions; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is the combination of the nerves within the skull and spine, while the peripheral nervous system is the nervous system that goes everywhere inside (autonomic nervous system) and outside (somatic nervous system) around the body except skull and spine. The somatic nervous system has two kinds of nerves; afferent nerves that carry sensory signals from the external parts of the body to center, and efferent nerves which carry motor signals from central nervous system to muscular system.
The Nervous System The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It acts as the body’s control center and coordinates body’s activities. Nerve cells, called neurons, send signals in the body that travel through impulses to reach their destinations. The CNS contains specific neurons called interneurons that transmit impulses between other nerve cells.
The sympathetic division mobilizes the body into action, and the parasympathetic division relaxes the body. All of these parts of the nervous system are made up of nerve tissue, the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system. Since the nervous tissue is packed with cells, the most common type of cells you’ll find on the tissue is neurons or nerve cells. These cells respond to stimuli and transmit signals.
Cerebellum is a complex structure of neurons located at the base of structure in the posterior fossa. It lies back to the occipital lobe of the brain and dorsal to the brainstem, at the level of the pons and the medulla. The cerebellum is separated from the brain stem by the fourth ventricle. It is also connected to the brainstem by three branches: 1. superior cerebellar branch 2.
It is thought that the hippocampus works with the amygdala, which is another important part of the limbic system responsible for fear and for storing memories of events for future recognition. Thus both the hippocampus and the limbic system play essential roles in human memory. Experts believe the hippocampus may work as a gateway through which new memories pass to enter to the permanent long-term memory storage.5 It is generally agreed that the hippocampus also has part of the role of detecting new surroundings, occurrences and stimuli. Some scientists believe it is specifically involved in declarative memory (explicit memory), which is one of the two main types of memory into which long-term memory is divided, and consists of facts, events and performance skills that can be consciously recalled or declared.
Axons descend form the pyramidal cells to the spinal cord and it conveys nerve impulses from the motor cortex to innervate skeletal muscles on the opposite side of the body (Tortora, et al, 2011). For this reason the function of the pyramidal system is to transmit information to control movement associated with the performance of the fine motor skills (Magill, 2014). Klawans (1996, p.88) stated that “it tells the spinal cord neurons when to perform a specific movement and precisely what to do in order to carry out that task: take a step, lift the leg, and bend both the hip and the
It consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The primary function of the sympathetic system is to stimulate your fight-or-flight response, while the parasympathetic system enables you to maintain normal functions such as digesting and keeping the body at rest. Part 2: The Structure of the Sympathetic Nervous System Transmission of signals in the sympathetic nervous system is accomplished through a network of nerve cells called neurons. There are two types of neurons – the preganglionic neurons have short fibers that originate from the spinal cord’s thoracolumbar segments, which communicate with ganglia adjacent to the spinal column, and synapse with the longer postganglionic neurons.
The limbic system links together our emotions, and how we respond to certain things or events. Finally, the cerebral cortex which is the biggest part of the brain. It is divided into four areas called lobes. Some areas process information from our senses, allowing us to see, feel, hear, and taste. The front part of the cortex, known as the frontal cortex or forebrain, is the thinking center.
As our brain waves are measured in hertz, and parts of the human body are reactive to different frequencies of radiation, we can confirm that some radiation may have the ability to affect our brains in specific ways. As previously noted, that very specific radiation must alter a tiny part of the brain, which is not significant enough to affect a living person. Reasonably, some primitive part of the brain that is overridden by the cortex. We can gather that the most complex behaviors in highly developed species such as mankind itself are associated with the cortex. The cerebral cortex is made up of tightly packed neurons and is the wrinkly outermost layers that surrounds the brain.
Scents, sounds, images, and physical sensations from your environment are taken in and processed in the thalamus. The thalamus is the area of the brain that is responsible for taking all of your sensory responses and blending them together into coherent, logical experiences. Next, these sensations travel to two directions to an area of your brain called the amygdala, on to your unconscious mind, up to your frontal lobe, and finally, it reaches your conscious awareness. The amygdala job is to determine if incoming information is necessary for survival. In cases when processing in the thalamus breaks down sensory responses are converted into isolated codes in your brain, dissociated fragments, and disintegrated memory processing happens.