African Americans comprise 31% of individuals arrested for drug violations. In eleven states, at least 1 in 20 black adults are in prison. Research shows that prosecutors are twice as likely to pursue a mandatory minimum sentence for black people as for white people charged with the same crime. One in nine black children and one in 38 Latino children have an incarcerated parent, compared to one in 57 white children. Higher rates of incarceration in minority communities have lead to the destruction of the family
The documentary the “13th” had shocking statistics on how many people are incarcerated in the United States. The 1970’s was the beginning of the “mass incarceration era,” which started with 357,292 people incarcerated. From there, the prison population has continuously increased and reached a population of 2,306,200 in 2014. Many of these people incarcerated are African-Americans because the criminal justice system has always worked against them. African-Americans in the United States account for 6.5% of the population, meanwhile they account for 42% of the prison population.
It has more than doubled mainly because of the policy. Today, it costs about $20,000 per year to confine just one physically fit and capable offender, and about three times that cost for an older prisoner in a penitentiary (“Reasons” 1). Considering that California is just one of the fifty states that is required to uphold this law, how much money is really being siphoned annually just to keep so many offenders in jail? The state court systems costs are also rising due to the abundance of felony cases being persecuted. Since the prisons are being over populated, new prisons are being build, funneling more money into the equation.
Moreover, The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Rutgers Law School Constitutional Litigation Clinic have stated that “of the approximately 100,000 parolees and probationers subject to the state 's felon-disfranchisement law, more than 60 percent are African American or Latino, which the ACLU and Rutgers say is in large measure a consequence of racial profiling in the criminal justice system.” Inclusive to what The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Rutgers Law School Constitutional Litigation Clinic have stated, minorities like African American or Latino have been disenfranchised because of racial profiling. The fact that minorities are losing their voice and fundamental right show cases the fact that disenfranchise further institutionalizes racism in the U.S.. Therefore as a progressive nation, disenfranchisement should not be allowed because it promotes racism. Overall ex-convicts should be allowed to vote because post-incarceration voting restrictions are a violation of universally accepted human rights standards and disproportionately excludes
The United States incarcerates more people than any country in the world, largely due to the war on drugs. Approximately 2.2 million Americans are incarcerated, which is more than any industrialized country in the world. The article “Why Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar” focuses on the criminalization of “urban space” and the imposed measures of lengthy prison terms for minor petty crimes. The author Thompson discusses the origins of the urban crisis beginning with the inception of Lyndon’s Law Enforcement Administration Act of 1964, which also influenced the mass incarceration policies during Reagan’s Presidency. The article continues to elaborate on the decline of the labor movement and how
The War on Drugs and Mass Incarceration The United States incarcerates at a higher rate than any other country in the world. In fact, the U.S. alone is home to 25% of the world’s prison population; this, however, wasn’t always the case. The rapid growth of the U.S. prison population can be traced two decades back to the declaration of the War on Drugs by President Ronald Regan in the early eighties and previously mentioned by President Richard Nixon. In an effort to reassure White Americans’ of their elite positioning in the underlying racial caste system in a time where inner-city communities were facing major economic collapses, the Regan administration called for the reinforcement of the sale, distribution, and consumption of illicit drugs,
Throughout history, the rate of incarceration among African American men has been significantly higher than that of other races. Since the 1970’s, it seems that serving time in jail is the rite of passage for an African American male. One of the contributing factors lies in the disparities of sentencing in the Criminal Justice System, especially during the drug war. According to Western & Becky Pettit (2010), African Americans have always been incarcerated at a higher rate than whites. Laws were enacted from 1914 (The Harrison Act) that restricted the sale of heroin and cocaine, which were both legal and established the legal framework for intervention on drug policy.
The authors addressed the birth disparity outcomes between the African American and White population. They stated that racial discrimination interconnects with income disparities, poverty, cultural isolation, stress, etc., As a result of these factors the African Americans still have the highest rate of infant mortality in the nation, and the African American babies die before the first birthday twice the rate comparing to White babies. Greg, R., Alexander, Michael, D. Kogan, & Nabukera, S. (2000). Racial Differences in Prenatal Care Use in the United States: Are Disparities Decreasing? American Journal of Public Health December 2002: Vol.
An institutional racism still faced both past and present can be found in incarceration and racial profiling. Our prison populations have skyrocketed since the 80 's and there is a disproportionate amount of black and Latino individuals who are incarcerated. Between New York’s stop and frisk policies and the insurmountable amounts of unarmed black and Latino men who are shot by police the discrimination by the police and law enforcement is clearly evident. Although black and Latino drivers are less likely than white to be carrying drug and other contraband the majority of car pulled over are the cars of black and Latino divers. The racial profiling is just one reason for the disproportionate black and Latino prison population.
Justice is not colorblind. According to the Human Rights Watch, “people of color are no more likely to use or sell illegal drugs than whites, but they have higher rate of arrests.” (Human Rights Watch) According to data found by the Department of Education, “96,000 students were arrested and 242,000 referred to law enforcement by schools during the 2009-10 school year.” (Washington Post). “Of those students, black and Hispanic students made up more than 70 percent.” (Washington Post) The deaths of Freddie Gray, Trayvon Martin and John Brown and the outrage these cases stirred, proves that racism does exist in the criminal justice system. Therefore, to prevent racial disparity in the criminal justice system it is crucial that America steps up in changing the way that officers respond to a victim of another race, reducing discriminatory mindsets, and lessening the victimizing that is set on these other groups of people.
As of September 26, 2015, there is a total of 93,821 inmates in prison for drug offenses, which is equivalent to 48.4 percent of the prison population. The use of illegal narcotics has been an issue within the country for decades; however, is incarceration the way to solve this problem? I think not. During the late 1960’s, poverty was a substantial issue within urban cities and secluded rural areas. On the other hand, recreational drug usage promoted by fashionable young, white Americans as a symbol of social upheaval and youthful rebellion coincided with the deprivation within many of these areas.
The 13th Documentary We can see that this documentary has been made for society to recognize that we live in a country where slavery still exists. It talks about the fact of how the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, where Blacks make approximately 40% in prison, even though they make around 12% of the U.S. population. They were seen as "super predators" and still seem as criminals. Injustices are still made among the black community because many of them who go to prison are innocent. Whites are less likely to go to prison for the same crimes that Blacks commit.
This statistic could steam from since 1980 to present the prison system has quadrupled in population from a half of million people to roughly 2.5 million people(NAACP,2015). Some would say that this is the reason for the downward trend of violent crimes in America, Because more of the people are locked up and not on the streets in order to commit crimes. Which may be the case, but the question still remains why is the statics of race in the prison system still a overwhelmingly different. For Example African Americans are locked up 6 times more than white offenders, As of 2008 the prison system is predominantly (58%) made up of African Americans and Latinos (NAACP,2015). From these statistics, it could possibly be assumed that the socioeconomic status from where a person is from could lead to a answer as to why this is happening all over
Cox (2009) explain the logic in the numbers by asserting that “African Americans are convicted more frequently than Caucasians and other races (making up fifty-nine percent of persons convicted of drug offenses), African Americans are subjected to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines more frequently. "(Cox, 2009, p.23) Wooldredge (2007) correlates social and economic disadvantages as being a driving factor minorities being an easy target for felony convictions. Wooldredge (2007) believes that Sentences are more severe for minority defendants from more social And economically disadvantaged areas within jurisdictions. (Wooldredge, 2007, p.239) Disenfranchisement of felons, especially African-Americans have brought with it a large growing concern
Affirmative Action Reader pg. 244 “ those many in our society that are darker, poorer, more identifiably foreign will continue to suffer the poverty, marginalization, immersion and incarceration.” Statistics are staggering Racial Disparities in Incarceration African Americans constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population, they are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whites, what’s shocking is that one in six black men had been incarcerated as of 2001 and if the trends continues one in three black males born today can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime. I am for affirmative action, as I believe that when the late President John F Kennedy signed the affirmative action on March 6th 1961,