The Niger Valley Civilization

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For the period 500 BCE to 1200 CE, the societies of Africa and the societies of Americas both developed primarily in isolation. The geography of these regions and environmental variations created great distance between the emerging civilizations within the two continents. For example, In Africa the civilization of Axum, located on the horn of Africa, emerged with ties to Arabia. The proximity to the Red Sea linked Axum with Egypt and subsequently Christianity. This civilization had a monarch political system, built monuments, and even developed a written language. While in the Niger valley a city-based civilization emerged that was absent of state structures. The Niger valley was driven by specialized economies, such as iron working, agricultural,
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