C) According to the Western model of social structure (Marx), the lower strata of different bureaucratic professions or domains might assimilate with proletarian workers, while the high bureaucracies – with the upper stratum of bourgeoisie. And in the last decades of the Western 19th century, the classical petty bourgeoisie even saw an outstripping of representing business interests have substantial independent impacts on U.S. government policy, while mass-based interest groups and average citizens have little or no independent influence. Our results provide substantial support for theories of Economic Elite Domination and for theories of Biased Pluralism, but not for theories of Majoritarian Electoral Democracy or Majoritarian Pluralism”.
There are two words in the title that needs to be first defined to understand the topic: Middle and Class in regard to the country India. Class refers to a group of people of similar social status having similar income and similar lifestyles. The middle class is the social status that is positioned between lower and upper classes. It includes small businessmen, professionals, doctors, lawyers, etc along with their families. These people make up the majority of the population and have been overlooked by historians.
According to Bowles and Gintis (1976) the main factor in determining someone’s success and income is not to their ability but a result of their background and class. The myth of meritocracy does nothing to help the working class, while justifying the privileges of the higher classes, giving the perception that these classes excel through fairness and open methods. The myth of meritocracy is a way of making the working class accepts their role in society. (Kennedy and Power, 2010) The idea of that meritocracy exists is given to students through the hidden curriculum. This results in the working class accepting inequality, thus making it less likely to try to overthrow capitalism.
The pre-feudal hierarchy was based on collection of gifts, taxes and tributes from vaishyas and extortion of labour service which was legitimized through ritualistic competition. The post-feudal hierarchy is based on merit, open competition and the public examination system. Although large number of people did not have access to education there is still scope for
Traditionally, Indian society was divided into four sects on the basis of occupational expertise like the Brahamins were assigned to read the scriptures, the Kshatriyas were assigned to rule, the Vashayas were engaged in trade and commerce and the Shudras were assigned to do the other jobs. But apart from these four sects, there were other castes that were completely ostracized from the traditional Indian society and not given any place in the caste hierarchy and were considered untouchables because they were engaged in professions that were considered “impure”. They were at the bottom of these (upper caste) people. They were treated less than humans. And if you’re a Dalit woman, the cocktail of gender and caste raises an even bigger barrier to tear
Land reform usually refers to redistribution of land from the rich to the poor. It basically includes regulation of ownership, operation, leasing, sales and inheritance of land. The major objective of land reforms was or colonial forms of landownership, often by taking land away from large landowners and redistributing it to landless peasants. Other goals include status of peasants and coordinating agricultural production with industrial programs. After India’s independence, the Government took some serious incentives to practice land reforms.
Usually second or third world and rural countries.Even though they are tied down by tradition they do in fact collaborate and engage with other economies to buy , sell and trade. It 's very unusual to see surplus in this type of economy.This is due to the factor that the rural countries who practice this type of economy does not have enough resources to produce the amount of supplies to the point where it reaches a
Inter-ethnic Divisions Another issue that reflects the lack of national identity in Malaysia is the inter-ethnic divisions in the country. During the colonial rule, the different ethnic groups were segregated by occupations, with the Malays in agriculture, Chinese in commerce and Indians in plantation (Stockwell, 1982). This colonial arrangement allowed for the formation of strong ethnic communities but at the same time made distinctions between the different ethnic groups. After colonial rule, the Malays with affirmative policy gained many rights and priorities in the country. The Chinese, due to their occupational designations, had some economic power.
The examples of mixed economy: This system has been applied in many countries which use both socialist and capitalist policies such as Canada and Western European nations. 3) Traditional Economy Characteristics: Traditional Economy is a system that shapes how people deal and provide services. In traditional economic individual tends to share their efforts and the group interests overcome the individual interest. It also gives the individual lower authorities comparing to the community. This kind of is outdated and rarely still exists in some areas around the globe where traditions, believes and customs still define the goods and services an economy provides.
According to Oxford Dictionary Socio-economic means realating to a concern with interaction of Social and Economic factors. ‘Status’ is complex of many elements including economic, political, social, religious and other relationship. It is certainly not easy tasking to asses the social and economic status of people. Socio-economic status means “In a system of social stratification it refers to a combination of various social and economic factors of rank which are used in research study. The socioeconomic status of people is not entirely dependent upon the circomstands of