Stimulus Control—using reminders and cues that encourage healthy behavior as substitutes for those that encourage the unhealthy behavior. Decisional balance This core construct "reflects the individual's relative weighing of the pros and cons of changing." Decision making was conceptualized by Janis and Mann as a "decisional balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses." Decisional balance measures, the pros and the cons, have become critical constructs in the transtheoretical model. The pros and cons combine to form a decisional "balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses.
Occupational Therapy Model / Frame of Reference (FOR) There are several frames of references that occupational therapy utilizes. The frame of reference (FOR) gives the therapist guidelines to follow as interventions are conducted. Choosing a proper FOR is key for the best treatment approach for each unique patient. One FOR that would be appropriate for Kara in this case study is Model of Human Occupation (MOHO). MOHO seeks to explain how occupation is interested, patterned, and performed.
A personal risk factor that has influenced Toni’s ability to manage change is that she suffers from depression. This has influenced her ability to manage change by making her feel unhappy, and that nothing is ever going to be good again. This links with the social determinant of health because it may effect her social interation with family and friends around her, which in turn could effect possible relationships with family and friends in the future. A personal protective factor that has influenced Toni’s ability to manage change is she tried to keep life as normal as possible, by doing this it meant that her everyday routines were still in place and it made her make the most of the day and not get stuck in a cycle of not getting up etc.
We are lucky to have access to fresh and healthy water yet we are a country of dehydration. So, how do you treat it? If your dehydration is mild it 's important to sip water slowly to regain fluid levels in your system; gulping water will only upset your stomach and vomiting could occur which further increases dehydration levels. Aside from sipping water, try adding a bit of honey or a pinch of salt to warm water and drink slowly to reinstate some of the electrolytes in your system. Keep in mind that water is best when you are experiencing dehydration though tea and natural fruit juices (with low or no sugar) are also acceptable in small amounts.
These people’s exhaustion may negatively affect the care that is given to the patients. One research study delved into the childhood of the caregivers to determine if the how the caregivers bonded as a child influenced whether or not they would become exhausted. The researchers used surveys to determine that the caregivers who were less secure in their relationships with others did become exhausted when caring for patients with dementia. They recommended that staff be educated about the effects of attachment on burnout (Kokkonen, Cheston, Dallos, & Smart, 2014). Reference Kokkonen, T.-M., Cheston, R. I., Dallos, R., & Smart, C. A.
One in four elders are at risk of abuse and only a small proportion of this is currently reported (Cooper, C., Selwood, A., Livingston, G., 2008). The use of physical restraints in older adults is associated with negative outcomes: physical decline, cardiovascular stress, decreased peripheral circulation, incontinence, social isolation, loss of self esteem, and even death (Gastmans, C., 2006). However, physical restraints are sometimes necessary to protect the patient, staff, and
Previous studies along a similar subject have looked at the effect of fatigue on landing performance in athletes who have previously suffered an ACL injury; this was completed using 12 subjects (Gokeler et al., 2014). Fatigue was found to affect the group negatively in Gokeler’s study. Both groups of subjects used had an increased LESS test score, with both scoring ‘poorly’ post fatigue inducing exercise. Our study differs in that we are using a larger group of subjects in a more randomised group, removing the bias of athletes that have already suffered a knee injury. The implications of this being; if the group scores higher LESS test results post exercise, should landing mechanics post fatigue be implemented into an athletes training routine with the goal of preventing potential injury in the future, regardless of injury history?
A model refers to a theoretical framework that seeks to shed light to a particular human behavioral aspect that is of concern in occupational therapy. It provides tools that aid in the application of the theory in practice. Once introduced, a model is continually tested and researched on in order to improve it (Kielhofner, 2008). This paper will address the Human Occupation (MOHO) Model. Originators and History of the Model The model was developed in the mid-1970s from Dr. Gary Kielhofner's practice and master thesis.
In the case of Postnatal depression mothers are said to have a more negative affect towards their child, the parents consciousness begins to fade as well as a change in their behaviour. Parents that are seriously affected by this disorder are less likely to interact with their child in a loving way, according to (Leckman et al., 2007: 95) They also seem less prone to interact with the infant in a special way, calling him/her by a nickname, imagining the infant 's future, or idealizing the child.Taking into consideration the lack of affection during postnatal depression there have been many studies that specifically demonstrate the connection between this
Johnson proposed as the most basic need physiological needs of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs is parallel to disease eradication outcome in health service; safety needs of Maslow’s hierarchy to patient performance outcome, esteem and love needs of Maslow’s hierarchy to general health outcome and self-actualization needs of Maslow’s hierarchy to patient satisfaction outcome, respectively. As this synthesis of two theories, Johnson proposed that as Maslow’s human needs hierarchy – once
As occupational therapy assistants one plays an intricate part in treating and caring for the client. In order to ensure that the client is treated properly and that they are progressing towards meeting their final outcome a treatment plan must be created. It is important that throughout treatment the occupational therapist (OT) and occupational therapy assistant (OTA) use independent professional judgement in order to ensure clients best interest are being met. The treatment plan consist of a three step intervention process: intervention plan, intervention implementation, and intervention review. The intervention plan is the initial step of implementing the treatment plan after the client has received an evaluation.
The quicker the patient can come off of the ventilator the less of a risk for the patient. To wean a patient off the ventilator it is important to have a physician order and to do it slow to make sure the patient can maintain. Slowly stop the sedations and see if the patient can breathe over the ventilator. Breathing exercises are important with a patient who is intubated to be able to get off the vent sooner. Some reasons that a patient would need mechanical ventilation is respiratory distress, if a person can’t protect airway, overdose, or an injury to the
The focus of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of task specific gait training compared to standard prosthetic gait training in reducing falls in individuals with a lower extremity amputation. The fall risk for individuals with a lower extremity amputation is comparable to that of individuals with balance impairments. Reported incidences of falls are 20% to 32% during rehabilitation and 52% within the community (). There can be many causes for a lower extremity amputation, the most common being poor circulation due to the damaging or narrowing of the arteries also known as peripheral artery disease. Other causes include trauma, tumors in the muscle or bone, infection and neuroma.
The Authors of this study research the methods used during evaluation and intervention to see if these are consistent with “best practices” of the profession. Faculty members of the University of New Hampshire (UNH) developed a questionnaire utilizing the language and concepts of the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF) 2008. Terms used include, occupation-based, client-centered, and evidence-based practice. The results indicated OT 's value occupation based, client-centered, evidence based practice (EBP) but focus more on performance skills and most often practice in unnatural environments. The study could be made stronger by using a larger sample size or using open-ended questions versus a Likert Scale.
Evidence-based practice change: Fall-risk assessment, and management and treatment among community-dwelling older adults in primary care setting Outcomes to measure: According to DiCenso, Guyatt, & Ciliska (2005), evaluation is an important step to determine the impact of the evidence-based practice change. The evaluation process after the implementation of the evidence-based practice change helps to assess whether the change has happened and had the intended impact. Upon the completion of the evaluation process, the practice change can remain unchanged, modified, or discarded (Gawlinski, 2007). DiCenso et al. (2005) also mentioned that the successful implementation of a change is based on the evaluation of structure, process, and outcome indicators.