First was the “normative gaze” the concept that basically the Greek concept of beauty is the norm (West pg. 55). This is the emergence of categorizing race denoting skin color to classify human bodies. The second of emergence comes with the rise of the reading of skulls and the reading of faces, these new disciplines opened the way for white supremacy (West pg. 57). To categorize people against what they felt was the norm and what they
History is something that suffers from survivorship bias i.e. those who overcame their adversaries get to write their version of the events. Knox theory is based on erroneous empirical evidence whose lack of substance he accepts in his book “The races of man”. Based on detailed autopsy of a single colored person, he casts an entire race as inferior based on the fact that the subject’s mental and physical capacities were of an inferior nature thereby; colored people were subservient to white people. Another theory that is cited by racists in order to strengthen their argument is Darwin’s theory of evolution.
I would hope we wouldn’t conduct such a repulsing study based around race and Social Darwinism. The Tuskegee case was clearly unethical. The researchers didn’t provide the infected men with the correct care, while being completely aware and capable in treating them.
As stated earlier the white monitory felt under threat and fear the extinction of the race as a whole and eugenics was perceive to be their last hope (Reference). Just as Britain had used eugenics in the classification of social status based on race; eugenics enabled the so-called “hereditary defects” to be segregated from society to protect the purity of the white race (Reference). Eugenics lay behind the construction of segregationist ideology in South Africa (Reference) as Professor Susanne Klausen. Each person belonged to the race where the texture of hair and skin color matched (Reference). Furthermore the Hassle on the distinctiveness of different cultures meant the burden of explaining human differences; eugenics was seen as the most efficient way of doing so.
The worth and importance of human beings in this world has been narrowed down to one factor: race. Race has aided in the development of the Human and it is a construct whose sole reason of existing is to oppress one group, while giving another power. There are numerous authors who have studied the meaning of race and how it affects what it means to be human, and each of these individuals have deconstructed the implication of race as what makes a person human while challenging every notion of white superiority over black people. The two races that were created to be in opposition to one another are white and black, and this divide has been able to prosper due to the establishment of reason by white individuals who wanted power.
In the beginning of the novel Tom asks Nick if he has read The Rise of the Colored Empire. He describes this book as using scientific evidence to defend the white race, saying that if they don 't do something to stop it, other races will take over and ruin society. This idea was very prevalent in the 1920s due to a lot of migration, a strong feeling of nativism became popular. Fitzgerald chooses to describe women as problematic due to the only reason being that they are female. He says “Dishonesty in a woman is a thing you never blame deeply” (Fitzgerald 58).
Colonization is an action in which one civilization captures and controls another civilization, preferably one which may be considered to be of lower status. This action is performed with the intent of civilizing and guiding another civilization.. However, this is a misconception; the advancement of a civilization is not synonymous with the physical aspects of the citizens found within that specific society. Colonization, in simple terms, is fueled by racism, an idea which assisted in the construction of the concept of white supremacy. White supremacy, or the delusion that the White race is the most superior race of all, was the powerful drive which allowed for brutal attacks to happen against people of color for thousands of years.
We can talk of prominent sociologists Max Weber and Franz Boas, who attributed on the refutation of the biological concept of race, dedicated to remove the ambiguous racial aspect from fundamental social, political, or economic determination. Years ago, white viewed “any racial intermixture makes one ‘non-white’” because they put white in a category of “pure,” which meant “white as “havin’ a little Negra blood in ya’-just one little teeny drop and a person’s all Negra.” Here came with a principle of social concept: hypo-descent. Thus, “black” turned out to be a word with different meanings in society, and faced the racial difficulties with stereotypes. "Micro-level" of racism mention in the writing, in which was drawn with social concepts by Omi and Winant.
There were three major points of the eugenicists toward the “socially inadequate.” The social, moral, physical, and mental qualities are transmitted in predictable patterns by the mechanisms of genetics, that the human race can be improved by selective mating, and that disease, crime, poverty, and other social issues can be stopped by discouraging or preventing the reproduction of socially inadequate individuals (Lombardo 1996: 3&4). New classes might be added, and races might be brought in with such regulation and the worst forms of cruel government practices would be performed (Buck v. Bell 1927: 202). The court ruled that Carrie should be sterilized in order to keep societies
Kallen Brunson In the article, “How Race becomes Biology: Embodiment of Social Inequality” by Clarence C. Gravlee, Gravlee argues that race, and the assumption of race in everyday life, makes the difference in biology much more clear and affects the life cycles of people due to their perceived race (Gravlee, 51). The author provides, using both his research and others’, an argument against the complete notion that race is only a social construct (Gravlee, 53). Through a series of statements, Gravlee states that race shouldn’t simply be excluded from anthropological discussion, but incorporated into present views regarding healthcare and impacts on society.
1. In the video, it was stated that racial classifications are arbitrary. Please explain how racial classifications are arbitrary. Racial classifications are arbitrary. Many “scientists” in societies have tried to prove that some races were more evolutionarily developed than other races with the use of eugenics, but race is a social construct to categorize people with similar features into the same sub-groups. Humans are all one species, and race is nothing more than expressed phenotypes.
He gave examples of historical evidence that he believed to be true. He claimed that cultures have always been led by the higher race. If the higher race mixed with or accepted the lower race then the culture would be destroyed or the entire race of people would be eliminated. He gave examples of the “mingling of Aryan blood with that of the lower people will result as the end of the cultured people”(313). He claimed “no more than Nature desires the mating of a weaker with stronger individuals, even less does she desire the blending of a higher with a lower race...over perhaps hundreds of thousands of years, might be ruined with one blow”(313).
For centuries people have always compared one another in all aspects, analyzing and debating every feature. When looking at the “white” person race comes into play. According to Debra J. Dickerson it comes down to the biological viewpoint of wanting to be better then someone. To become greater than others whites established supremacy and dominance to ensure they are better race. This is the creation of whiteness.