The Pan-African Movement In South Africa

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2.4 PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENT
The inception of the Pan-African movement was motivated by colonialism and racism faced by African people living in Europe, West Indies and North America in the nineteenth and twentieth century. Henry Sylvester William (1869–1911) is given recognition as the founder of this movement. Born in West Indies and being a scholar in Trinidad, he was able to organize the first Pan- African meeting in 1900 in the city of London (Adi, 2007).
Through this, leaders of African states originated this movement to unite people of African descent to fight against racism and colonialism (Schraeder, 2000). The Pan-African movement was initiated by significant figures such as William Dubois and Marcus Garvey (Biney, 2011). The concept
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The profession of the African Union (AU) is to make crucial assessments regarding the African continent. The decision making body is known as the “Assembly of the African Union” with its head of states or government meeting annually to discuss matters affecting Africa. The conversion of the Organization of African Unions (OAU) to the African Union (AU) is believed to have Africa working towards its second liberation. (Turnbill, 2004:5)
The objectives of the African Union are to…
• Promote peace, security and stability on the African continent.
• To safeguard and prevent conflict amongst regions within Africa.
• To accomplish unity and harmony amongst African people.
• To defend the power, integrity and independence of its African members of state.
• To elevate the living conditions of African people.
• To improve the African continent by promoting research in as many fields as possible.
• To promote human rights in agreement with the African charter. (Landsberg, 2006)
These objectives where identified by the Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organ (SIPO) which contains the same goals and ambitions as the South African Development Community (SADC). Their aim and Objective is to present strategies that will be in parallel with the peace and security agenda held by the African Union (AU). SIPOs priority is
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Its major aims are those already mentioned within the African Unions objectives. The difference with the Organization of African Unions (OAU) was that it had proposed two ways of eliminating minority rule and colonialism. The Union would strongly defend the independent countries and fight for those countries that where still colonized. Their second approach was that they protect their members from outside control, in doing this they had to remain neutral in their dealings with the rest of the world. Gwinyayi A. Dzinesa, Dawn Nagar and Chris Saunders

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