Research of over the course 30 years showed that infants are far more competent, social, and responsive and are able to make sense of their environment. Infants are no longer regarded as passive and do not only respond to stimuli (Fantz, 1963). The theory of attachment that was first proposed by John Bowlby (1970) described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. He notion that children as young as infant need to develop a secure attachment with their main caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theories are both psychopathology and normal socio-emotional development.
Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Cultural Differences in Child Attachment and The Universality of Attachment Theory Although attachment theory has been widely accepted, its universality is controversial. Some research support its validity across cultures, some do not. The main critique about the universality of attachment theory is that it is based especially on research that is conducted in Euro-Western populations. This causes suspicions about whether attachment theory is valid across diverse cultures. In this paper, I will present a literature review of four cross-cultural research to examine the universality of attachment theory.
INTRO Attachment theory is the idea that a child needs to form a close relationship with at least one primary caregivers , this theory provided that attachment is necessary to ensure successful social emotional development of an infant. This is a very crucial stage in occurs in the early infant years this factors relationships with the child and the primary child care giver. In this case the parents and the educator can share the primary role. John Bowlby began researching after he graduated, he believed the attached processed involved the cognitive emotional and social features of attachment. Stating four different style of attachment and how they can all have leading factors as well as long term affects.
Attachment theory and romantic relationship The most salient person variable with regards to interpersonal relationships is the contact of attachment style, which is theoretically grounded in Bowlby's attachment theory. Attachment theory posits that when an infant is separated from the primary caregiver or attachment figure (usually the mother). A set of behaviors will ensue which serve the function of regaining proximity to the caregiver. This is known as the separation protest behavioral system (Bowlby, 1973). Separation protest is unique to attachment relationships.
One person may be attached to another individual without this relationship being mutual. From this term, stems the universal Attachment Theory. In psychology, this theory originates with the joint work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth which was conducted
Everyone forms attachments. Starting with parents, to friends and even animals. It is the emotional bond between two people, usually between the caregiver and infant. A process that takes time, which leads to specific behavioural activities like clinging and proximity-seeking. According to John Bowlby, a British researcher, all these attachments made throughout life can be traced back to the right kind of maternal presence had during the first three years of life, also known as the critical period.
Attachment is as an affection or fondness for someone or something. Attachment is “an affectionate bond between two individuals that endures through space and time and serves to join them emotionally”. (Butler.I, Hickman.C ,2011, pg 14) Attachment theory is the theory of how infant and caregiver bond from the works of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991 ).They use the approachs from animal behaviour, how people communicate, how infants process information, how people change over their life , and the unconscious mind. Attachment is “not synonymous with love or affection; it is not an overall descriptor of the relationship between the parent and child which includes other parent–child interactions such as feeding, stimulation, play or problem solving” (Prior, 2006, pg 15) Attachment theory is based on a emotional and physical attachment that is important to the personal development of a child. The attachment is shown by some behaviors in infants, such as needing closeness with the attachment figure when upset or threatened, the infant uses the figure as secure base that the child can use when in need of security and comfort (Bowlby, 1969).
Like the ending of the book says, we place more attention on achievement and power in children today that it causes a hindrance on secure attachments and also has changed parenting styles. I do agree with Karen's call for more research on attachment. It would be interesting read more about attachments in today's society and how it has changed, although, it is apparent when you look into the lives of some families especially if you work in the education
In observing the timeline, the events depicted shows the development of Attachment Theory from its early influence until the collaboration by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (nee Salter). This theory was formulated by John Bowlby and then with further input it was elaborated by Mary Ainsworth. It seems as if this theory has originated from a base on ethological theories, the study of animal and human as they evolved; psychoanalytic perspective where the mother-child relationship was analyzed and; cognitive where the self and others are examined. Mary Main an American who is a psychologist and a professor, has taken attachment theory into a new direction by applying it to adults. She was a student of Mary Ainsworth, and whilst working with her