Human influences on soil erosion Aspect 1: The effect overgrazing has on soils. Overgrazing is when a farmer stocks (Keeps) too many animals in their land. Examples of such animals are sheep, which pull up the roots of plants, cattle, which kick up the top layer of dirt which is then blown away by the wind, and goats. These animals all damage the surface of the soil and speed up soil erosion. These animals eat the vegetation cover of the area and their hooves dig into the soil, which compacts it into a hard surface in dry regions, meaning it is given a platy structure, which is a very poorly drained soil structure.
C. Wind Erosion: Wind erosion takes place when soil particles are removed by the kinetic energy of the moving wind. These particles stay in motion till the energy level of the wind drops causing them to be deposited. D. Gravity Erosion: Gravity erosion occurs when soil particles found at a slope gradient are moved due to the force of gravity. This type of erosion usually occurs from high to low levels and is caused by the weight of the soil. E. Water Erosion: The last type of erosion is water erosion.
Soil erosion is a natural process which loosens the crust and moves it to somewhere else (Society). Erosion includes two common types, water and wind erosion. There are several factors which affect erosion, including the temperature of the soil, existence of plants, wind, water, gases, and gravity (Erosion). This process can occur very slowly, and can go unnoticed at a glance. However, over time, the loss of the topsoil will create a hole in the soil (Soil Erosion Causes and
However, this is only one data set and it is not reliable as it does not contain data from different areas and precipitation is not the only factor in the formation of sinkholes. Other factors include the type of land (strong or thin) and temperature that is sometimes warm temperature causes drought along with other temperatures affecting differently. Also, population plays a huge factor, because if more people use the water then it runs out faster and the water level falls, triggering karst regions to turn into sinkholes due to unstable ground. so, the data provided is not reliable, then we cannot assume precipitation has no effect on sinkholes even though it does along with many
This kind of deformation is classified as natural disasters and causes destruction through flooding, rifts and collapsing of large buildings in cities. This affects the environment because it creates a negative balance in energy and leads to mass loss of species, habitats and food sources (Nelson, 2016). Earthquakes break up large portions of continents while volcanic activity creates new land; according to(Botkin and Keller (1998), both of these processes disrupt “atmospheric and ocean circulation” as well as the fauna and flora of an area (pg 142). Figure 5: Sedimentary rock (Sandstone) http://geology.com/rocks/ Figure 6: Metamorphic rock (Marble) http://geology.com/rocks/ Figure 4: Igneous rock (Granite) http://geology.com/rocks/
Soil erosion can occur due to various phenomenons and factors. Phenomenon’s being: natural forces (rain, wind, ice, snow, e.t.c) and artificial (deforestation, construction, mining, e.t.c). However the extent of this phenomenon’s effect on the rate of erosion is dependent on or to some extent governed by certain factors: such as land use, land cover soil properties, topography and so forth. 2.2. 1 Factors affecting soil
Type IV areas experience even rainfall all year. Climate change planning and projections are being done by government units with most research done by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services (PAGASA). Data collected from 1951 to 2009 were used in establishing climate trends. Projections for 2020 and 2050 were done. Findings indicate that there will be an increase of 0.65ºC in the mean annual temperature ranging from 0.1ºC and 0.35ºC.
Water pollution runs rampant in the Philippines, like most forms of pollution do. The Philippines ranked 31st in the mid-year 2015 pollution rankings out of 103 countries in addition to being the third in plastic pollution, which means that a little over 1 billion tons of plastic was dumped into the ocean during 2010. Another appalling fact is that while the Philippines is a nation with extremely polluted bodies of water, it nevertheless ranks first worldwide in marine biodiversity. The reason that the Philippines is so evidently polluted is due to many factors, such as overfishing and destructive fishing. Take the case of local fishermen.
1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Background Landslides belong to the most destructive phenomena of nature that cause damage to both property and life every year throughout the world. For example, a report from the year 2001 in the United States, landslides caused approximately 3.5 billion dollars in damage, and kill between 25 and 50 people annually (US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004). Therefore, the study of landslides has drawn global attention mainly due to increasing awareness of its socio-economic impacts and also increasing pressure of urbanization on the mountain environment (Aleotti and Chowdhury, 1999; Kanungo et al., 2006). In Ethiopia, landslide hazard is one of the crucial environmental problems for all the activities performed
Cohen et al. (2012) describes the process of weathering by breaking down the parent material and so this determines the texture, the structure and the colour of the soil (Cohen et al., 2012). This determines what type of organisms will use the soil. Climate change is influenced by the biosphere. As the climate conditions change, the volume of water in the soil also changes.