Case Study 1 – The Endocrine System Christina D’Amico University of Saint Joseph Abstract A fifteen-year-old boy with many hormonal abnormalities starting at the age of eleven suffered from joint pain and swelling along with poor bone growth and development. He broke his left hip and had low levels of testosterone and high levels of growth hormone resulting in gigantism and later acromegaly.
After a few years, there was a tumor in her pituitary region. The tumor was secreting excessive amounts of growth hormone, casing symptoms to appear. She had enlarged hands and feet, coarsened, enlarged facial features, coarse, oily, thickened skin, and
As soon as the melatonin produced, it is released into the circulation. The pineal gland is therefore without the storage function as genuine hormonal glands have. Long-term intake of melatonin does not result in any reduction of tallkottkörtels production, which is the rule for genuine hormones. - Melatonin is found in all living organisms, in greater amounts in many foods. During the intake of these are melatonin in the body.
Each conducts a different function. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces steroids such as aldosterone which reabsorbs sodium and releases potassium. The adrenal cortex is vital to sustain life. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces adrenaline hormones such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that are used in sudden stress
There is ongoing research to figure out what causes Pseudotumor. There have been some reports of it in multiple generations within families, suggesting that genes may be a factor. Because of Pseudotumor Cerebri’s relationship to gender and obesity, there is a strong chance that hormones contribute to it. Some hormones are released from fatty tissue, and are being studied as factors in the disease.
The adrenal cortex is responsible for secreting corticosteroids and hormones such as: • Cortisol enables the control the body 's use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates as well as suppresses inflammatory reactions in the body • Aldosterone which regulates the level of sodium and potassium in the body and helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure. Aldosterone is regulated by complex feedback mechanisms involving sodium and potassium levels as well as blood volume. • Androgenic steroids which are hormones that are converted elsewhere in the body to female hormones (estrogens) and male hormones (androgens) The adrenal medulla is responsible for helping the body cope with emotional and physical stress and secretes hormones such as: • Epinephrine which helps the body to respond to a stressful situation by increasing the heart rate and force of heart contractions, facilitating blood flow to the muscles and brain, causing the relaxation of smooth muscles, helping with conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, and other activities.
According to the cases from Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan, the results show some common functional pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, growth hormone tumors, ACTH tumors, and TSH tumors. Prolactinomas are the most common adenomas among these functional pituitary tumors, and hyperprolactin is one of the most obvious symptoms of prolactinomas. Prolactinoma will cause women to produce milk even they do not give birth to a child, menstrual cycle changed or even stopped, inability to get pregnant, and stimulate the breast develop in men, etc. The second most common functional pituitary tumors are the growth hormone tumors, and this will cause gigantism or acromegaly due to the excess of the growth hormone produced by the tumor. ACTH is stands for Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, and for ACTH tumor, the symptoms are basically the change on appearance.
What is Pitocin? Pitocin is the name brand of Oxytocin which is a drug used to help with contractions during labor. It is also a natural hormone found in the female body during the childbirth process that helps with contractions and induces labor. It is also used during miscarriages to contract the uterus to push the fetus into the birth canal.
An unbalance in these hormones would cause changes in the function and structure of the gland. In the setting where there isn’t a sufficient amount of Thyroxin synthesized by the gland, there is an increase in TSH production. Over production of TSH causes hyperplasia of the gland just to match normal thyroid levels. This would then cause a goiter to form. When the goiter is grown significantly, pressure is put on the esophagus and trachea, causing respiratory
The PTH helps control the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood stream. So, without the secretions of the PTH, the human body will slowly start to shut down. Consequently, the parathyroid hormone is not ‘awake’ like the rest of the body is. Hypoparathyroidism can be triggered by “something that develops in childhood” or the adult life (Hypoparathyroidism). It can even be congenital, meaning, someone can be born with this disorder, or it can be inherited (Hypoparathyroidism).
Along with blood testing, brain studies may be done to see whether or not you actually have a tumor on the pituitary gland. Treatment for hypopituitarism will go according to the various imbalances present. One of the drugs you will be given is probably steroids such as Prednisone. Prednisone will replace adrenal hormones causing ACTH deficits. Drugs for thyroid hormones such as Synthroid will also be given to help deficits in hormones.
NOTES Oxytocin is a hormone which is a nonapeptide hormone which is found in mammals. The hormone is produced in the hypothalamus which is a part of the brain. What the hormone does, is it transferred by the posterior pituitary gland into the bloodstream. Two of the most important actions in the human body are contractions in the uterus during lactation and childbirth.
The ovaries are found only in women. They make the hormones estrogen and progesterone which help develop breasts at puberty, regulate the menstrual cycle, and support a pregnancy. The last gland in the endocrine system are the testes. The testes play a large role in making testosterone and also in making
Exercise 4, Activity 2: Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus By: Kelsey Clark Anatomy & Physiology II–CL7 Dr. Bruner February 20, 2018 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The endocrine system helps regulate homeostasis by producing and secreting hormones. When talking about Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus, the endocrine organ that is involved is the pancreas. The pancreas produces Glucagon and Insulin.