While the rural urban migration may seem as the logical choice for many people, it has come with numerous disastrous effects to our economy such as the following: • Our city’s resources like water and electricity are being depleted as an increased number of people are competing for the same services and resources. • Jobs are becoming scarce leading to an increase in crime levels within the city. • Our city’s infrastructure including roads, transport services etc. are unable to support the increased population. Furthermore, a lot of funding is being used to maintain this infrastructure rather than setting up new ones.
In land migration in the country has become a problem in the country. What people do is they move around in search of employments in the metropolis. Most Kenyan have taken advantage of this issue and opted to leave the rural areas, in order to participate in the nation building. The rural – urban migration has with time been regarded as a negative manner of mobilization in the Kenyan country. Since, the level of development in certain areas is imbalanced.
Migratory movements are caused due pressure on land because of rapid growth of population, decline in rural industries and handicrafts, lack of employment and livelihood etc. thus, migration is one of the dynamic constituents of population change and a vital component of development. Labour migration may be defined as a form of labour mobility towards districts or states or outside where industry and employment are expanding. In the other words, migration may be the phenomenon of the flow of people over shorter or longer distances from one origin to a destination either for temporary or permanent settlement. Present scenario of Construction sector and labour migration in India
There are different schools of though responsible for the wide spread of human trafficking issues Myanmar. Migration could be the core reason that is clearly evident among migrant. The movements of people to new places combine with pull and push factors, such as limited livelihoods, social economic development gap within the region, and along the borders of China and Thailand in search of better living conditions. Most of the migrants from Myanmar seek job opportunity with minimum requirement of proficiency as worker in factory and fish vessels. In addition to wages incentive and demand of less skilled labors in neighboring countries act as a pull factors for the migrants.
It can be perfectly rational to migrate despite urban unemployment due to a positive expected income differential. Hagen-Zanker (2008) argued against this assumption as not having clear predictions and the significance of income differentials is undisputable in labour migration decision. Increased rural emigration certainly makes the rural areas depopulated and this affects the rural economy in general and agriculture in particular, which is the main economic activity in those areas. Migration from the rural areas causes changes in resources (labour and land resources) in the rural
Varied factors that further caused social complications include the excessive years of institutional disorganization and inflation which also led to destabilizing the social fabric in the country. Lacking the finances and wherewithal to pay for the countries needs made it harder for the country to find plausible solutions to the challenges they faced. Study shows there is a clear connection and effect of the establishment of priorities and responses to issues that mostly attract the world media. Over emphasis of attention from the external forces has resulted into disruption of the country’s social fabric. However, there is much work to be done for Brazil to improve its social conditions and avoid blaming the external factors for the deteriorating social and cultural strengths.
People in the rural areas hear about success stories of those who moved to the urban areas and this acts as an incentive for people to move out to urban areas, those who migrate are mostly concerned with the benefits they hope to gain and give less thought to the problems that arise as a result of their migration, Rural-urban migration has long since been recognized as one of the major problems of rural development in Nigeria and yet the government has not been able to effectively curb it. (Nwosu 1979). Migration and natural population increase contribute to urban growth but is dependent on the level of urbanization. Rhoda (1983) though increase in population in the urban areas leads to a number of varying difficulties; increasing urbanization and growth of urban poverty are among the most pervasive difficulties of growing urban
Suffered from serious social disabilities the lower castes longed for migration to individual centers. Their growing realization of their humiliated position and the prospects of freedom in the industrial centers insisted them to migrate, so they could escape from the sufferings of social disabilities (Roy, 1918) The characteristic feature of labour in India is its migratory character. Therefore, migration of labour assumes great significance in the Indian economy. Migration is as a result of unequal development which resulted in the movement from backward regions to developed regions. In India migrants are mostly from remote villages, often are less educated and cautious about different preventive measures.
An issue that is still patent in our country is belittling the farmers who actually are the ones providing us food from the market. They receive little amount of money for a job that would take time, patience and dedication. This has been the case of Oscar who couldn’t even afford the seeds needed to farm for next season. This led him and his family to flee from the province and live in the “lavished” life of Metro Manila. Another immense issue that the government should focus on are the people from the province moving to the city to seek for better jobs.
Also the results of globalisation and liberalisation has resulted in mass production, new jobs etc, on the other hand it demands skilled labour which has automatically pushed the unskilled labour out of market leading to mismatch with the population growth and employment opportunities. In the process of mass production, contracting and sub-contracting has led to employment for daily/ regular wages informal jobs which make the Informal sector an integral part of the economy. At the same time small scale entrepreneurs have become less accessible to the large mass production opportunities. Informal economy is associated with two major aspects, one is the growth of the economy and the other is related to poverty and inequality. Most people prefer to get into the sector because it become an avenue for their survival.