Powerful spiritual renewal and heresy arose from the chaotic scene of bloodshed, the fierce intellectual controversies played an important role in religious freedom. The Reformation had brought individual thinkers to develop the principle that no one should be persecuted for his or her religion. Sebastian Castellio was one of the very first humanists who stood on this principle and describes that the world is entangled in the questions of religion. As indicated on Document 8, he does not agree with doctrine punishment for those who denied faith to Christianity. He believed that a person’s conscience should not be subject to power and suppressed by the civil authorities.
However, he added a whole new dimension to his concept of justice because of his Christianity and devotion of God. St. Augustine firmly believed that only Christians, which worshipped God, can exercise true justice through the submission to
He believes that not only does eternal law that provide guidance regarding what men should do or avoid if they wish to be happy or good, but it also issues commands and prohibitions of actions that are not legitimate (Strass & Cropsey 1987, p. 186). Revealed Law, according to Augustine, finds its origin in God's revelation through the Bible. He believes that, to resist such law "is to defy God's own ordinance, inasmuch as civil society is intended by God Himself as a remedy for evil and is used by Him as an instrument of mercy in the midst of a sinful world" (Strauss & Cropsey 1987, p. 200). Chapter 13 of Apostle Paul's letter to the Romans starts out with these words: "Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established"(Romans 13:1, NIV). Augustine often refers to this particular passage in the Bible when talking about Revealed Law.
Furthermore, Emerson misuses this as “proof” of why the soul is all-powerful and should be worshipped. However, Christians know this to be false and in direct opposition to the Bible, which teaches that salvation through Christ’s sacrifice on the cross determines the soul’s outcome after
Rudolph Otto prioritizes the non-rational as offering a truer understanding of religion because he claims the core of all religious life revolves around experiences and feeling, not simply rational thought. Overall, the rational is but an attempt to define the undefinable. To understand Otto’s rejection of the rational, the rational must be understood. “Rational,” in The Idea of the Holy, refers to the conceptualization of religion and the divine itself. Otto’s basic definition of the rational stems from the establishment and application of concepts evidenced in “they can be grasped by the intellect; they can be analyzed by thought; they even admit of definition.
His response to this was to develop a series of principals of faith, each directly contradicting doctrinal teaching of the Church at the time. His first, and perhaps most prominent idea was the principal of Sola Scriptura, the concept that “Scripture is the sole, final and infallible norm of faith and practice.” (Mathison, 2001). Luther, after studying the bible in detail himself, came to the conclusion that many of the Churches current practices were not derived from scripture, such as the practice of all seven Catholic sacraments. Luther suggested that the bible, not the church, was the highest source of authority for a Christian adherent, and that all theology must be supported by scriptural evidence. This theological standpoint led to his other key principles, and remains at the forefront of Protestant Christianity.
Nietzsche thought that Christian morals guided European humanity for the last 1,500 years (Bishop, 2012). Europeans had to make a noteworthy choice regarding the last man and the superman, between a realistic society dedicated to complete contentment or a higher but sad culture with superhuman possibilities (Bishop, 2012). Christianity was the first against particle and theoretical nihilism. Christianity gave purpose to people’s lives by granting them an absolute value, Christianity was able to explain and justify the evil and suffering in the world (Moroney, 1987). As time went by the spirit of truthfulness sprang from Christianity and eventually gave way to the rise of nihilism as people began to question the notion of God and the whole Christian culture (Moroney, 1987).
However, the ability of these two branches to incorporate the complex effects of religion on a global scale differs significantly. For instance, security studies theories generally share the philosophical underpinnings of international relations theories that have a pessimistic view of human nature. A belief in the fundamental inevitability of war and a suspicion that morality, law and institutional cooperation can only play a limited role in an anarchic international system where the logic of self help reigns (Baylis & Wirtz 2007). Sandal & James 2010 have argued that of all the realist paradigms, classical realism may be the one most amenable to taking into account the role of religion. Because it is founded on human nature, It has provided an opportunity to look at linkages between the human nature and the system
At the same time, the behavior of a religious person cannot be defined only by the contents of his religion, otherwise every its follower would be the same (Norenzayan, 2013). This is why the scientific research of Christianity seems to us more efficient: its dogma is based on prosocial ideals, naturally accepted and encouraged by society (which possibly could emerge due to the appearance of Christianity in the first place, but that is a discussion for a philosophic study). Because of distinct prosocial nature of Christian beliefs, we can more clearly observe the factors that modify these beliefs, as they have a lesser range of interpretations. This range became narrower with the arrival of Reformation and overall improvement in public education, as the abuse of religious power and beliefs decreased (Cameron, 2012). Even without a well-defined moral ideals
in this global changing atmosphere that different issues such as same-sex marriage start to be respected and accepted, the catholic church resist on the opposition stand. On the aspect of morality, they share the right of marriage as normal people, we should not discriminate and abandon them. Yet, it is a infringement to gods commands in the perspective of christian. I had a meantime on facing others challenge on this topic. The conflict between morality and religion.