Powell and Colyvas (2008) refer to this reciprocal influence in two distinct ways of analysis: ‘built up’ processes and ‘pulled down’ processes. Built up processes, also referred to as ‘bottom up’ processes, uncover the influences of individual and organizational actors on higher-level institutions by means of micro-level rituals and negotiations that aggregate over time (Powell and Colyvas, 2008). Pulled down or ‘top down’ processes on the other hand stress how institutional logics at a societal level are embedded as ‘taken-for-granted’ norms within organizations and individual beliefs. This process, where macro-level and micro-level processes influence each other is visualized in the figure below (figure 2). March and Olsen (1989) refer to this mechanism in two dichotomous distinctions.
It is because of this tension that an individual might react in a way that reduces the tension in him. Job Characteristics Theory Hackman and Oldham (1976); Schermerhorn (1984); Hellriegel, Jackson and Slocum (1999) and Dugguh (2008) cited by Ali et al. (2015: 419) proposed a framework to study how particular job characteristics affect job outcomes and job satisfaction. The framework states that there are a number of core job characteristics that impact on job outcomes and they are: • Variety of skills: it includes the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work and involves the use of different skills and talents of the
Keynesians who are also known as neoclassical synthesis develop their theory which considers some of ideas from the general theory. In their theory they develop a view that in short run output is influenced by aggregate demand especially in some economic disastrous such as depressions (Felderer and Homburg 1992:
Bandwagoning for security and bandwagoning for profit Scholars differentiate motives of bandwagoning strategy into two different reasons: for security, and for profit. A problem of Walt’s definition of bandwagoning strategy is whether states bandwagon voluntarily. Walt, in his later writing, admitted
Individual Decision Making In the approach of individual decision, managers or employer use different model process and result in different conclusions, not based on a rational choice but of their personality, management style and experience. (Keen and Morton, 1978). Bureaucratic model is a model
Social Exchange Theory Vs. Self-Determination Theory The often quoted theory that supports and explains the relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Organisational outcomes is the social exchange theory (Blau 1964) and the reciprocity norm (Gouldner 1960). According to the social exchange theory, if the organisation fulfils the employees psychological contracts, the organisation is said to have reached its goal (Rousseau 1995) Critical to this argument is the reciprocity norm which suggests that a generalised moral norm is that individuals are obliged to help individuals who help them . Sticking to this norm employees are motivated to hold negative attitudes which over the time build as deviant behaviours (Bordia
N In this assignment we are going to discuss what is meant by agency theory, the agency relationship, and problems of agency theory together with their solutions as well as the assumptions. An agency is characterised as a relationship between two gatherings, one referred to as the main the other known as an operator, whereby an executor speaks to the primary to participate in a transaction with an outsider. An agency relationship gets to be successful once the vital delegates or contract the executor to render an administration for the benefit of the principal. Agency theory explains how to best organise relationships in which one gathering decides the work while another does the work. Agency theory is developed as a framework for analysing
By using this one, the organizational structure, and motivational arrangements are identified as some of the factors affecting the efficiency of the system among others. However, some researchers recognized that the market itself is systemic and the elements comprising it are interlinked with one another. Due to this, behavior and the influence that the relationships among these firms have to do with the market performance. This is known to be the structure-conduct-performance approach of market analysis. Here, the variables that are significant in evaluating the system’s behavior can be categorized into three, namely: Structure, Conduct, and Performance (Clodius and Mueller,
Behavior that is performed for its own sake is intrinsically motivated and behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment is extrinsically motivated. Examples of extrinsic motivators are salary, working conditions and job security, while opportunities to use one 's own initiative and creativity are examples of intrinsic motivators. ( - ) The vast diversity of people and the complexity of their behavior have led to a broad range and variety of motivation theories. The purpose of these motivation theories is to attempt to explain and predict observable behavior. ( ) Motivation theories can be broadly divided in two groups: needs theories and process theories.
The business dictionary defines a dispute resolution as a procedure that one uses in order to rectify any conflict between two or more parties or groups. There are often various steps utilised in which to settle differences, disagreement or claims. It is regarded as an alternative procedure to having a court decide on ways to correct the disagreement that occurred in a contract or case. These procedures will assist in allowing the parties to have some needs that are met and deals with their particular interests (“Dispute Resolution Processes,”n.d.) Employment disputes are categorized into two groups’ namely individual and collective disputes.