America and Russia had different Aims for Germany. Stalin wanted to destroy Germany, and was stripping East Germany of its wealth. Britain and America wanted to rebuild Germany’s industry in January 1947, they joined their two zones together into Bizonia. This had a big impact on both Sides sphere of influence because the USSR’s way of protecting their sphere of influence is to make Russia more powerful, by stripping Germany from their industrial resources, they are leaving Germany helpless while Russia can expand its industrial dominance. But when America interfered with the USSR’s plans they tried to help Germany by occupying Western Germany, this helped America’s sphere of influence because not only did they have control over germany, but they were able to convert West Germany to become a democratic country.
For many years, The Cold War was the issue of a fierce debate regarding who or what exactly was the reason that caused it. On this subject, there are three schools of thought: the traditionalists, the revisionists and the post-revisionists. The traditionalists blame Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union’s expansionist and violent diplomacy for being the starters of the war. “Besides violating the agreements made at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin completely disregarded the United Nations because he intended to expand and dominate his sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.” (Nye 118). The revisionists kept insisting on blaming the American expansionism rather than the Soviet Union’s wish to spread communism into Eastern Europe.
EFFECTS OF THE WAR The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era characterized towards the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA), making a bipolar world. • Emergence of superpowers: After World War II, only two countries USA and Soviet Union (USSR) were economically powerful. The war caused much destruction and injured the natural resources and economy of the Western European countries mainly Britain, France and Germany. These countries had formerly dominated the world’s trade market but because of the war they lost their previous position and as a result the unharmed countries, USA and USSR emerged as the two powerful nations in the world. The USA had suffered relatively less from the war and had enjoyed great success from supplying the other allies with war materials and food while USSR had been damaged more on the western side and completely unharmed on the east.
Their army was reduced to 100,000 men, their navy and air force were restricted, Anschluss with Austria was forbidden and they had to pay reparations of a total of 6.6 billion pounds. Germany was not consulted about this and was forced to sign. Finally, Hitler followed an expansionist policy of Lebensraum, which means living space. This term was used by Nazis to justify their claim to large areas of Russia and Eastern Europe. It was to cater for the growing German population and there are no doubt that Hitler’s aims and objectives contributed to Hitler dominating the diplomatic stage in Europe.
In choosing Hitler and Churchill, two totally opposite leaders, Roberts examines the phenomenon of political and military leadership. He also looks at the way Hitler and Churchill estimated each other as leaders and how it affected the outcome of the conflict. Roberts mainly had made use of the speeches by Hitler and Churchill but how propaganda shaped the trajectory of these two leaders is not dealt with. The visual propaganda is generally missing adding to the non-academic connotation to the posters and caricatures. Similarly, Peter John opines that Adolf Hitler and Churchill clashed for years in public and their opinions of each other and feuding helped determine the course of the Second World War.
Although Truman’s actions and the new ‘policies’ that he introduced were a major factor to the deterioration of America-Soviet relations, it is important to understand the pre-1945 factors that affected these relations. After World War I, European countries adopted an appeasement ideology: The world was horrified by what the war had done to Europe, and a war like that must never happen again, so peace must be protected at all costs. This led to many attempts to preserve peace in Europe, which ultimately failed as Germany invaded Poland and the world realized that another war was about to begin. However, one of the last agreements that the western countries signed with the Nazis might have been the start of the bad Soviet relations with these countries: the Munich agreement. This agreement said that Hitler was free to invade a portion of Czechoslovakia, as long as he went no further.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine (a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism) was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides involved in the conflict, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, who in turn were ruled by a dictator (Stalin) or a small committee ("Politburo").
Ronald Reagan was an influential leader due to his actions in the Cold War, his stance on international peace, and his impact on the US economy. Between 1981 and 1989, Ronald Reagan was a major force in creating a peaceful end to the Cold War. The military spending policies of the Reagan-Bush years forced the Soviets to the brink of economic collapse (Jim Woods). This was beneficial to ending the Cold War because the Soviets could not afford to move resources, Nuclear Missiles, into firing positions. In particular, President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative intimidated the Soviet leaders and
To examine the Cold War consensus, one must discuss the Cold War. The Cold war was the tension between the United States, standing for capitalism, and the USSR, standing for totalitarianism and socialism, following World War II. Although it was not a physical war between the two superpowers, many proxy wars had came out of it as way to spread or combat communism throughout the Free World. The Free World, as the U.S. came to define it, did not necessarily mean free as countries were being ruled by military regimes and dictatorships, but free from communism(70). During the Cold War, the spread of communism frighted the American People.
Cultural and government practices were factors that had triggered the building of the Berlin Wall. The main reason the Berlin Wall was built by East Germans (the Communist Government) was to stop the “brain drain.” The East Germans wanted to stop all of the scientists, engineers, doctors, teachers and many more scholars from crossing over to the West side of Germany (Democratic Government). The East Germans wanted to stop these people from crossing over, because without them their economy would crash. (history.com, 2017) Braving the