According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits. In addition, classifications suggest a relationship among categories that makes distinctions or separate groupings possible". Nonetheless, it seems that even though feminism derives or contributed to the birth of gender studies and inscribed its movement as a military approach, other movements linked to oppression such as the homosexuals and transsexuals can also be considered as gender studies without necessarily being in accordance to the domination of a biological sex on another. It seems that there is a deviation from gender to sexuality and not only biology differentiations. For example, one can argue
According to Bromley, postmodernists “use deconstruction to expose the power and politics embedded in metanarratives, uncovering seemingly transcendent truths as socially constructed” (Bromley, 2012, Pg. 93). As I stated before, postmodernists believe that gender and sexuality are not based on biology, but rather performances. One of the biggest influences of postmodern feminism was Judith Butler. Butler, in addition to other several other postmodern feminists, believed that performances come before the gender/and or
Novels, in particular, can be particularly ambiguous in terms of genre. Murakami’s novel, Sputnik Sweetheart, is no different—it could easily be a mystery, a misshapen romance, or even science fiction. Classifying the novel in these ways, however, all result in a focus on Sumire; when focused on Sumire, the novel’s main character, the novel seems one-dimensional—it’s the story of a young woman who disappears. However, interpreting the novel with an emphasis on Miu, a supporting character, reveals the story’s true complexities and coming-of-age storyline. Miu’s transformation over the course of the novel and the resolution of her identity crisis shows that the novel is, in fact, a coming-of-age novel.
. Importantly, unlike the realist consciousness-raising fiction, which arose out of the women's liberation movement, feminist sf did not focus solely on exposing the ways patriarchal society had limited women's lives, but asked what could be done differently. If we had societies that were not built on unequal relations between the sexes (and races) what would they look like? How would they function? Would science and technology be done differently?
Originally, she only accounts for the binary and traditional sex which is between a man and a woman. But she realizes this isn't good enough. She not only wants her definition to include all couples, but she also wants to show how sex changes people and the relationship they are in. It isn't something to be taken lightly, and always alters the relationship no matter what, either bringing people closer together, or pushing them apart. Lastly the final part she wants to
Performativity either places the individual within the system or outside of it. Similarly, through metamorphosis, the individual no longer belongs to a well-defined group. Smith, however, puts a more positive twist on the concept of metamorphosis by reworking it to emphasise its potential of creating new identities. Her book takes the traditional heterosexual romance story the title misleadingly points to and transforms it into “a story of gender mixing and fluidity” (Mitchell, 68). At the same time, Robin – the “boy” in question – doesn’t seem to get a determinate gender throughout the story (“I was a she was a he was a we were a girl and a girl and a boy and a boy” (Smith 103)), but exists in this new space the title creates, at the intersection of genders.
The main difference between these two genres of female-oriented manga, however, lies in the degree of realism portrayed. While ladies’ comics do represent women “actively pursuing their own sexual pleasure, taking the initiative in sexual experimentation and otherwise negotiating heterosexual relationships in a world of gender inequalities”, they do not remove the gender binary of the real world as BL comics do. Of course, given that the Japanese society “still values sexual inexperience in females”, ladies’ comics’ depiction of female sexual desire and adventurousness can be considered subversive. Yet, its characters and settings prevent radical change and continue to perpetuate the existing gender order precisely because they are rooted in the real world. BL manga, on the other hand, grants female readers the power to look at men without fear of being looked-at – freeing themselves as objects of male sexual desire.
REPRESENTATION OF GENDER ROLES BEYOND OEDIPAL COMPLEMENTARITIES IN DAUGHTER CHARACTERS IN SHAKESPEARE’S SELECTED WORKS “[A] II human individuals, as a result of their bisexual disposition and of cross-inheritance, combine in themselves both masculine and feminine characteristics, so that pure masculinity and femininity remain theoretical constructions of uncertain content”. —Freud, 1925 ABSTRACT All over the world, especially in developing countries, the condition of women were or are not in par with men. The predicament of women has undergone a considerable change, which can be seen every part of the globe. Creating labels as well as nomenclatures to identify women has become a common phenomenon, which is found all over the world. At this
Gender debate has its origin from the period unknown. The consequences of this debate are umpteen in number and interplay of dualities in women is one among them. Women in Salman Rushdie’s novels vividly display multiple dual elements inbuilt in them, and this paper deconstructs the mystery behind the split-personality of Aurora Zogoiby of Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. Just identifying the dual elements in her would be meaningless if the causes and origins of these dual elements are left unexplored. The views expressed by psychoanalysts, Simone de Beauvoir, Ajay Skaria, Nicole Weikgenannt, Chandra Mohanty, Trinh T. Minh-Ha, Aloka Patel, Catherine Cundy, and Justyna Deszcz have been skimmed and scanned to throw light on these
An increase in female readers led to the testing of gender ideas, especially in the United States where science fiction was considered “an arena for testing ideas” (Attebery 2002). Feminist science fiction emerged as a way to test these gender ideas, imagining women in positions where they are not represented in society. Feminist science fiction can be defined as “science fiction that articulates an awareness of women’s place in a political system and their connectedness to other women” (Calvin 2012). Within the genre, women are seen in positions of power within the political system, roles women have not typically been associated with in the past. Women are given a more equitable role in society when compared to their male counterparts, sharing authority in a successful
Eleanor Rathbone led the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship (NUSEC) which seceded the NUWSS at the end of the war. Rathbone followed a ‘new’ feminism which “embodied [the] belief that the equality of women with men had been achieved” (Kent, 1988, p. 240). New feminism is also viewed as a step backwards by many especially in foresight. These new feminists stopped challenging the ideological issues caused by their gender, and their new ideology became too similar to that of antifeminists. Their new demands were based on what women at home might need instead of equal voting rights.
Taylor is using Cohen as a feminist symbol; by showing use that we could do anything men could do through the example of Cohen. Showing that women/feminist can be funny. This article is trying to say that there needs to be feminist and that showing us feminist could do anything as long as we try. For example with Cohen, she didn’t like the idea that feminist can’t be fun so she decided to do something about
Medea: Questions About Women and Femininity Euripides’ play, Medea, is an ambiguous narrative relating to feminism. Depending on one’s viewpoint, the eponymous character can either be one of the most unconventional delegates of women’s rights or an oblivious saboteur willing to undermine the cause. I believe the former, holding the opinion that Medea was a pioneer for feminism, being the original driving force behind breaking the stereotypes assigned to women. Although I also hold the stance that her impact is short-term due to the fact that her surrounding actions have overshadowed her ambitious acts.
This creates the question, is femininity natural, or something someone constantly works towards? Why Anne Makes us Dizzy: Reading Anne of Green Gables from a Gender Perspective written by Julia McQullian and Julie Pfeiffer, is a scholary article that analysis and critiques the gender roles and perspectives portrayed
So while Astrid struggles to follow a career she is supposedly not predisposed for, that reflects back into our society’s need to label and categorise and to make assumptions based on qualities people have no control over. For the same reason, I decided to have an hinted queer romance rather than a straight one, giving the final liberation from the “forbidden love” rule a more explicit meaning. Overall, fantasy has turned out to be a very interesting genre to work with: it is built on a long tradition of figures, images and plots that readers can pick up on but that a writer can play with and subvert to serve the purpose of a larger story that is ultimately a reflection of our