Some microorganisms have further evolved to breakdown tougher plant components such as lignin, which is a component found in plant cell walls. These organisms are known as white rot fungi (WRF) and they possess the ability to break down and degrade lignin into carbon dioxide (CO2). There are other lignocellulose degrading fungi and these are known as brown rot fungi, however they quickly depolymerize cellulose and only modify lignin rather than degrade it like WRF, however both play a huge role in the carbon
Therefore, worldwide there is a continuous interest in development of new, effective and inexpensive techniques for the removal of pollutants. Among them bioremediation have been broadly studied. Bioremediation involves “clean-up of pollution from air, surface water, groundwater and soil, using biological processes,
The conventional methods are expensive and are not very effective. Thus bioremediation is the need of the hour. Bioremediation uses living organisms to degrade or remove the pollutants from a contaminated site. It is defined as “Treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances” (EPA). The environment has the inbuilt tendency to degrade the waste which is known as intrinsic bioremediation.
Fructosyl Transferase (FTase) or β-fructofuranosidase (FFase) is responsible for the microbial production of FOS. FTase produces FOS (GFn) from sucrose (GF) in a disproportionate mode, thereby forming 1-kestose (GF2) initially, then1-nystose (GF3), followed by 1-fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4). Microbial FTases are derived from bacterial and fungal
Unfortunately our oceans are suffering from many types of pollutants that are prominent in our environment. One of the main distributors of pollution is sewage. Sewage and other polluting substances flow into the world's rivers and drainage pipes until all of the substances dump out into the ocean. In addition to sewage, other chemicals finds its way to the oceans, which leads to the reduction of oxygen being released into the atmosphere. With this in place, the waters become murky and filled with substances that can harm marine life.
Natural colours are abundant in microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi , yeast ect., among which Yeast are readily grown and are easy to cultivate in large scale level. Thus the current study was focused on isolation of pigment producing yeast and found that 3 strains are capable of producing pigments. The potential strain was optimized under several conditions by response surface methodology and extracted using methanol. Antibacterial activity was done against different human pathogens and finally it was checked in test tubes and plates to verify its absorption level and found that the pigment produced from the Rhodotorulaspis readily absorbable in agar and further study of this pigment canlead to an effective natural food colourant in food
Almost all fungi are heterotrophic in nature and all are aerobic thus they do not occur in diverse environment as bacteria. Importance: 1. Fungi are important in decomposition of organic residues in soil 2. They are especially important in decomposing woody material which many bacteria cannot decompose. 3.
Phosphorus metabolism : The endomycorrhizal symbiosis is beneficial for both fungi and plant. Fungi provide phosphorus to the plant while plant as a result give carbon to the fungi. But the phosphorus metabolism is the most important part of this association. Phosphorus is first absorbed by fungi from the soil and is stored in its cytoplasm while later fungi transport it to its vacuoles. Then these vacuolar components containing phosphoros are transported from outer mycelium of fungi to the plant.
resistance may provide an additional method for controlling faba bean diseases to be considered in an integrated diseases management. Geetha and Shetty (2002) reported the induction of resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew disease up on treating seeds of the highly susceptible cultivars of pearl millet with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (BTH) (CGA 245704), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). 0.75 per cent BTH, 90 mM CaCl2 and 1.0mM H2O2 were efficient in managing the disease by giving 78 per cent, 66 per cent and 59 per cent protection respectively, against downy mildew disease. In vivo quantification of Sclerospora graminicola by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed reduced fungal biomass in plants induced for resistance. 2.11.