In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics [12-14]. However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening.
Excessively addition of coagulants can be avoided by using EC, due to the generation of the coagulants by electro oxidation of a sacrificial anode. EC has easy operation and simple equipment. The most common electrode materials used for EC are aluminum and iron. They are readily available, economical, very effective. When aluminum is used as electrode material, the reactions
This is highly exothermic reaction with the present of multi component catalyst such as molybdenum, bismuth and iron supported by silica. These catalysts can achieve high selectivity and weak activity that deactivate the process slowly. The drawback using these catalysts is the product is easily poisoned by sulfur compound in the reactant gas. Because of the highly exothermic reaction, it can achieve until 670 to 750 kJ/mol of heat reaction. The superficial velocity of reactant gas inserted into the reactor is very fast by the range of 0.4 to 0.7 m/s and it only taken few seconds of contact time from 5 to 20s in the reactor.
Chromium (Cr) is one of the known environmental toxic pollutants in the world which is from group VIII element of the first transition series and has a hard brittle gray transition metal with atomic number 24 and relative atomic mass 51.99 g/mol. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exit in several different forms and the most common forms are chromium, chromium (III) and chromium (IV). The major industrial application of chromium include the processes for making steel, chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning operations, and wood preserving (Guertin, 2004). According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR, (2012) Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process.
ECD (Electron Capture Detectors): These are costly than FID, and are used to detect pesticides and insecticides. 3. TCD(Thermal conductivity Detectors): These are the universal detectors and used for quantification. Advantages of GC-MS: • High sensitivity and selectivity. • High speed i.e.
Among the wide variety of possible precursors for plasma-polymerization, organosilicon monomers particularly hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) are preferred since they are non-toxic, non-flammable, and inexpensive. Plasma deposition of HMDSO is highly investigated for production of thin silicon oxide films in different atmospheres mainly including Ar, N2, and O2[40,46–48]. However, only few authors report the hydrophobic deposition using HMDSO by atmospheric pressure
In terms of drilling fluid, underbalance uses a way cheaper, lighter and more affordable fluid such as natural gas, water, light mud and even oxygen content air. In some certain extend where discoveries has been done, foam is used as the filtrate. With the use of foams lately, drilling bits life could be extend and it saves the financials of one’s drilling operation ( Ostroot, Shayegi, Zoontjes & Lovorn, 2007; Mitchell, 2007). Furthermore, as the underbalance condition is applied in the wellbore, the amount of mud and drilling fluid loss has been reduce dramatically. This will also reduce the skin factor and likewise, the cost disposal for cleaning processes of casings and pipes has also decline ( Ostroot, et al.
Using chitosan as a food preservative allows for reuse of this waste, making its use environmentally beneficial; while also reasonably cheap and cost-effective in production and usage. - Its biodegradability also allows chitosan biofilms to be beneficial to the environment. - The chitosan film has antibacterial and antifungal properties, meaning that it ultimately prolongs shelf-lives of the foods which it coats. - As chitosan film is a polysaccharide which physically coats the food product, it offers the advantage of being edible,
One of the biggest advantage is it has an instant improvement, humans have the natural desire to be impatient so most run to to the chemical fertilizer. The chemical soil is also cheaper than the natural fertilizer because it uses less products than the natural soil, which also catches the eyes of the gardeners . The nutrients in the chemical soil is just like graderns would
BIOCHEMICAL OXIDATION Auxiliary treatment by biochemical oxidation of broke down and colloidal natural mixes is material to a couple of horticultural and modern wastewaters. Convergance of some less edible mixes may be diminished by co-digestion system. Evacuation effectiveness is restricted by the base nourishment fixation require to maintain the treatment biological system. Compound OXIDATION Compound oxidation is utilized to evacuate steady natural contaminations and deposit of biochemical oxidation. Cleansing by compound oxidation eliminates microscopic organisms and microbial pathogens by including ozone, chlorine or hypochlorite to wastewater.